Assessment of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes based on their agronomic characters and tolerance to biotic stress

İ. Öztürk1*, A. Şen2, T.H. Kılıç1, Ş. Şili1

1Trakia Agricultural Research Institute, Edirne, Turkey
2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey

(Manuscript received 15 April 2019; accepted for publication 10 September 2019)

Abstract. The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence and severity of biotic stress factors, quality and agronomic parameters and its effect on yield and quality character of wheat genotypes. The experiment was conducted at Trakia Agricultural Research Institute, Edirne experimental area, during 2013-2015 cropping years. Grain yield, days of heading, plant height, 1000-kernel weight, test weight, protein ratio, leaf rust, stripe rust, Septoria leaf spot and relationship among these parameters were investigated. Based on a two years data, apart from protein content, other parameters showed significant difference (p<0.05). When compared to the mean yields in both cropping years, the genotypes Gelibolu and BBVD-3, BBVD-4, BBVD-9 genotypes were determined the better-adapted genotypes under target environment. Cultivar Aldane and TCI011322-8 line was detected as very tolerant to leaf rust and stripe rust in both years under the infection of field condition. Aldane had higher protein ratio, 1000-kernel weight and test weight. Grain yield was positively correlated with test weight and negatively correlated with foliar diseases. A highly significant negative correlation was determined between grain yield and plant height in both growing years. Leaf rust and Septoria tritici leaf disease had negative effect on protein ratio in both years. There was a significant positive relation between 1000-kernel weight and test weight. Results of the study indicated that based on biotic stress factors BBVD-6, BBVD-7 and TCI011322-8 are promising lines that need to be improved a bit further.

Variation and stability of the advanced bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes under various environment conditions in Trakia region

İ. Öztürk1*, T. Kahraman1, R. Avcı1, A. Şen2, T.H. Kılıç1

1Trakia Agricultural Research Institute, Edirne, Turkey
2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, İstanbul University, İstanbul, Turkey

(Manuscript received 10 October 2018; accepted for publication 24 January 2019)

Abstract. Various environmental conditions can cause some biotic and abiotic stress factors and reduce yield and quality of wheat. This research was carried out to determine the effect of the environmental conditions on yield, some agronomic, and leaf rust disease of the bread wheat genotypes in four different locations in Trakia region, Turkey. The experiment was established with 25 genotypes in randomised complete block design (RCBD) with 4 replications in 2008-2009 cycles. Grain yield, days to heading and maturity, plant height, lodging resistance, leaf rust and relationship among characters were investigated. The temperature and rainfall were scored at GS24-33, GS34-43, GS45-75 and GS77-89 growth stages and compared with the investigated traits. According to the results, significant differences among locations and some investigated parameters were found based on rainfall and temperature with yield and other investigated traits. The mean yield of the genotypes was 5851 kg ha-1, and CMSW97WM518S-12 had the highest yield with 6601 kg ha-1. Tekirdağ was the highest yielding location with 7022 kg ha-1, followed by Edirne (5808 kg ha-1) and Kırklareli (5754 kg ha-1). Due to various environment conditions infection of the leaf rust varied and there were differences among locations. Cultivar Aldane and three lines were resistant to leaf rust. Positive relation between yield with plant height and lodging resistance was found and this means that genotypes which have tall plant had higher yield potential. Rainfall at GS24-33 (r= 0.855) and GS34-43 (r= 0.911*) had a significant and positive effect on grain yield. Increase of temperature during the shooting, heading and grain filling period decreased grain yield, so negative association between grain yield and temperature at GS34-43 (r= -0.761), GS45-75 (r= -0.635) and GS77-89 (r= -0.815) was found. The overall evaluation suggested that increase of temperature from shooting up to grain filling decreased the grain yield duration of the maturating stage. Rainfall during the vegetative growth phase increased grain yield and biomass of plant of genotypes.