Utilization of Corchorus olitorius leaf as binder in the diet of Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings

I.O. Oke*, E.O. Adeparusi, A.A. Dada

Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 704, Akure, Ondo State Nigeria

(Manuscript received 16 October 2020; accepted for publication 22 February 2021)

Abstract. This study was carried out to evaluate the physical properties and dietary value of feeds made using Corchorus olitorius as binders in fish feeds. Six isonitrogenous diets were prepared using maize wheat or maize and wheat as energy source. The diets were designated as MAI, WHC, MAW, MAC, WHC and MWC. With the first three being bounded with corn starch and the last three being bounded with C. olitorius leaves soaked for 24 hours and pelleted. Physical properties evaluated are sinking rate, water absorption index, water stability, bulk density, thickness strength, friability and hardness. There was significant differences (p<0.05) in the water stability, water absorption index and thickness swelling of the diet. The highest water stability value was recorded in diet MAW. For growth parameters and nutrient utilization by fish fed experimental diets, diet MWC had a significantly higher mean final weight (9.42±0.41g), mean weight gain (5.43±0.41g), feed efficiency ratio (0.93±0.13) and specific growth rate (1.22±0.06%d-1). There was no significant difference in the feed conversion ratio, mean feed intake, and survival rate. The result shows that diet bounded with C. olitorius leaf had better utilization compared to corn starch bounded feed.

Growth and yield of orange (Washington Navel 141) grafted on different citrus rootstocks

Alaa Suhiel Ibrahim*

Research station of Ciano, Jableh, the agricultural scientific research center in Lattakia, General corps of scientific agricultural researches, Syria

(Manuscript received 26 May 2020; accepted for publication 27 July 2020)

Abstract. This investigation was conducted during 2014, 2015 and 2016 in the field of the citrus experimental station in Ciano, the general corps of scientific agricultural researches. The growth and yield of orange trees (Washington navel 141) budded on seven citrus rootstocks (Sour orange, Troyer citrange, Carrizo citrange, Citrumelo 4475, Citrumelo 1452, Macrophylla and Cleopatra mandarin) and farmed since 1989 have been studied. The results for the average of yield showed that the trees grafted on Cleopatra mandarin (58.33 kg. tree-1) were significantly superior to those grafted on Macrophylla (34.17 kg. tree-1). Orange trees grafted on Citrumelo 4475 and Citrumelo 1452 were significantly superior to other treatments in trunk section area of the rootstock (922.41 and 841.02 cm2, respectively). The greatest fruit fresh weight was in trees grafted on Citrumelo 4475 (284.85 g. fruit-1) which were significantly superior to those grafted on Carrizo and Troyer citrange (232.49 and 236.06 g. fruit-1, respectively). The biggest total soluble solids (%) was in trees grafted on Carrizo and Troyer citrange (12.83% for both treatments) which were significantly superior to those grafted on Sour orangе and Macrophylla (11.5% for both treatments), while the greatest total acids (%) was by Sour orange (2.08%) without significant differences.

The effect of laundry grey water irrigation on the growth response of selected local bean species in Nigeria

B. Ikhajiagbe1,2, E.O. Ohanmu1,3*, P.O. Ekhator1, P.A. Victor1

1Environmental Biotechnology and Sustainability Research Group, Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
2Applied Environmental Biosciences and Public Health Research Group, Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

3Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Edo University Iyamho, Edo State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 25 July 2019; accepted for publication 5 February 2020)

Abstract. This study examined the growth responses of some selected local bean (pulses) varieties in Nigeria; Vigna unguiculata (Ife brown), Vigna unguiculata (Ekpoma Local), Phaseolus vulgaris, Cajanus cajan and Glycine max, cultivated on soil irrigated with laundry-based grey water. Healthy seeds of all bean species were sown in plastic bowls of three replicates each and irrigated daily with similar quantities of the respective grey water. The effect of the grey water on the germination, growth and yield of all the beans was observed for a period of four months. The result obtained revealed that grey water had a negative effect on the growth and yield of all the beans as there was a decrease in the percentage emergence of all seedlings, height of emergent seedlings and number of flowers and pods produced. Grey water also altered the chlorophyll content and total crude protein of all the beans subjected to the treatment. The effect of grey water on plant is as a result of accumulation of excess salts contained in grey water on the soil.

Effect of diets with raw garlic flour on growth performance and blood parameters in rabbits

M.U. Onyekwere1, P.C. Jiwuba1*, U.N. Egu2

1Department of Animal Production Technology, Federal College of Agriculture, P.M.B. 7008, Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria 2Department of Agriculture, Abia State University, P.M.B. 7010 Umuahia, Abia state, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 6 August 2018; accepted for publication 16 October 2018)

Abstract. Ninety-six growing New Zealand rabbit bucks (male) and does (female) were randomly assigned to four treatment diets for a period of ninety (90) days. The treatments which contained 0% (T1) control, 5% (T2), 10% (T3) and 15% (T4) raw garlic flour meal were fed to the rabbits in a completely randomized design (CRD) to determine the growth performance, haematology and serum chemistry of the rabbits. The results on growth performance in both sexes showed significant differences (p<0.05) among the treatment groups except for final body weights. T4 recorded the best values in weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) for both sexes. Results of hematological parameters (haemoglobin – Hb, Packed Cell Volume – PCV, Red Blood Cell – RBC, White Blood Cell –WBC, Mean Cell Volume – MCV, Mean Cell Haemoglobin – MCH and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration – MCHC) showed significant (p<0.05) difference for all the parameters evaluated except for red blood cells in both sexes. Haemoglobin values for both sexes were higher and better for the treatment groups in comparison with the control. For the serum chemistry (Total serum protein, Albumin, Globulin, Urea, Creatinine and Cholesterol) all the parameters showed significant (p<0.05) difference among the parameters examined except albumin for both sexes. However, globulin was also similar (p>0.05) for the male rabbits. Significant (p<0.05) reduction in blood cholesterol was recorded in rabbits fed the treatment diets. The study indicated that raw garlic floor could effectively be added to rabbit ration to improve the quality of the feed and the physiological condition of the animals.

Effect of Аrtemisia annua L. extract on growth performance, biochemical blood parameters and meat quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.), cultivated in recirculating system

  1. Koshinski*


Department of Biology and Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria


DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.051

(Manuscript received 30 June 2018; accepted for publication 20 August 2018)


Abstract. Medicinal herbs can be used as feed additives to improve animal growth performance and to optimize physiological processes. The purpose of this study was to trace growth performance, meat quality and biochemical blood parameters (glucose, urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, ASAT, ALAT, Ca, P, Mg, triglycerides, cholesterol) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.), fed with additive sweet wormwood (Аrtemisia annua L.) extract. In a recirculation system at the Aquaculture Base of the Faculty of Agriculture at Trakia University, a control group (no added) and an experimental (with added 204 mg.kg-1 of sweet wormwood extract) option were set, each of them with two replicates and mean initial weight of fish 13.32±3.07g and 13.37±2.76g, respectively. Forty specimens of rainbow trouts in good health condition were placed in each tank and cultivated for 60 days. At the end of the experiment average final weight, specific growth rates, feed conversion ratio, meat quality and blood biochemical parameters were calculated. Trouts from the experimental group, fed with supplement had 5.5% higher average final weight compared to this one of individuals from the control (P<0.05). The blood biochemical parameters glucose, ASAT and ALAT in control variant were higher compared to the values of that parameters of the fish from the experimental group (P>0.05). Electrolytes of blood such as phosphorus (P) had higher level in the experimental group (P>0.05) compared to the control group. Better growth performance and blood parameters were measured in trout fed sweet wormwood supplement.

Effect of feeding program for first two months after birth of female calves on growth, development and first lactation performance

G. Ganchev*, E. Yavuz, N. Todorov

Departmet of Morphology, Physiology and Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

Abstract. The aim of this paper was to review the available literature examining the relationship between milk feeding method of dairy calves during preweaning period on their growth and development. We conclude that delayed and inadequate colostrum feeding can result in increased morbidity and mortality. The higher level of milk feeding for dairy calves has the potential to increase growth rates during the preweaning period, to reduce time needed to reach a necessary body weigh at first calving and improve milk yield at first calving. Providing more milk however, may decrease intake of solid feed during the period of feeding milk. So far is it not clear, whether it is possible to combine intensive liquid feeding with sufficient dry feed intakes at weaning to continue normal growth of calves; otherwise, what is the level of milk feeding allowing small, or even to avoid, slump in growth at weaning. It is not known what level of milk feeding plus free access to starter allows obtaining a high level of live body gain during the first two months necessary for enhancing future milk yield of heifer calves. Additional studies are needed to clarify effect of different levels of milk feeding and scheme of feeding female dairy calves on growth rate, development, feed efficiency and health status during pre weaning and post weaning period.


Effect of the length of the interstock on the growth and reproductive aspects of sweet cherry cultivar Biggareau Burlat

P. Kaymakanov*

Department of Fruit Growing, Faculty of Viticulture and Horticulture, Agricultural University Plovdiv, 12 Mendeleev, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

Abstract. In the period 2012 – 2013 the influence of 3 interstocks on growth and fruit bearing of the sweet cherry cultivar Biggareau Burlat grafted on Prunus mahaleb L. – P1 seedling rootstock was tested. As interstocks were used Gisela 5, the sour cherry cultivar North Star and the Hybrid 2/10, each of them with length 10 and 30 cm. The trees were planted in March 2006 with planting distance 6.0 x 4.5 m and were grown without irrigation and training. The sweet cherry cultivar Stella which was planted in adjacent rows was used for pollination of Biggareau Burlat. It was established that under the influence of the longer intesrock the trunk size was reduced in the area of the rootstock and the interstock itself. The trunk size was bigger in the area of the scion. The differences were more pronounced where Gisela 5 was used. The longer interstock induced weaker growth of the trees grafted on Gisela 5 and reduced the crown volume. The trees with the longer interstock have larger number of blossoms per linear metre of two-year-old wood, but with lower percent of fruit set. Despite the lower fruit set the trees with the longer interstock have higher cumulative yield compared to the crown volume and the differences to Gisela 5 are proved.


Growth and fruiting of the apple variety Braeburn 7926 grafted on M9 Pajam2 and MM106

G. Dobrevska*
Department of Fruit-Growing, Faculty of Viticulture and Horticulture, Agricultural University Plovdiv, 12 Mendeleev, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Abstract. The growth and reproductive characteristics of the apple variety Braeburn 7926 grafted on two rootstocks with different growth potential – M9 Pajam2 and MM106 is studied. Both rootstocks induce growth manifestations on the variety which are in compliance with their commonly accepted characteristics in fruit growing – proven higher values of the cross – section area of the stem, as well as, in respect to the volume of the crown of the grafted variety are recorded in a combination with the semi – weakly growing rootstock MM106 in comparison to the weakly – growing M9 Pajam2. The combination Braeburn 7926/M9 Pajam2 is more productive during the first year of the observed period and this is due to the earlier fruitgrowing stage of the variety which is affected by the weakergrowing rootstock. The yields are slowly declining in the following years in comparison to the combination Braeburn 7926/MM106 because of the reflected smaller crowns volume affected by the weaker rootstock. The productivity coefficient shows higher values when rootstock M9 Pajam2 is used only during a part of the observed period. A higher planting density can be recommended when the weaker growing sort-rootstock combination is applied for a more rational usage of the vegetative area.