Monitoring of fungal diseases of lavender

K. Vasileva*

Department of Phytopathology, Faculty of Plant Protection and Agroecology, Agricultural University, 12 Mendeleev, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

Abstract. In the period between 2013 and 2014, phytosanitary monitoring was performed to establish the health status of lavender in relation to fungal diseases. During 2013, the diseases spread were investigated on 56.973 ha, and during 2014 – on 218.01 ha, respectively. The calculated disease incidence is 20.84% for the first, and 21.64% for the second year. The data analysis indicates that the phytosanitary situation is very complicated. As a whole, the pathogen infestation on the major varieties at different ages and in different regions was between 3.45% and 53.79%. The percentage of infected plants varies by regions: Karlovo (from 34.08 to 35.65%), Stara Zagora (16.04 – 30.27%), Kazanlak (20.01 – 23.43%), Elhovo (32.67 – 35.10%), Shumen (14.79 – 15.79%). Disease incidenceonthemajorvarietySeuthopolis,in1to3-year-oldlavenderplantationsdiffers:inIganovovillage,Karlovoregionitwas36.18% andinKhanKrum village, Shumen region – 4.73%. This is an indication for the presence of high infection level in lavender fields from the early stages of plant development. It may be due to the usage of infected planting material or to the establishment of new plantations onto old lavender fields. Isolations have been made from different organs of lavender plants affected by pathogens, applying both traditional and specific phytopathological methods. Based on morphological characteristics the following fungi genera have been identified: Phoma (P. lavandulae), Phomopsis (P. lavandulae), Septoria (S. lavandulae), and Phytophthora (P. parasitica and Phytophthora hybrid).

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Comparative GC/MS analysis of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) inflorescence and essential oil volatiles

T. Zagorcheva, S. Stanev, K. Rusanov, I. Atanassov
Abstract. The composition of lavender inflorescence volatiles and distilled essential oils is significantly influenced by a number of factors, which makes it difficult to perform comparative analysis for larger lavender genetic resource collections and segregating populations. In the present study we test a simple procedure for GC/MS analysis of inflorescence volatiles, including frozen inflorescence sample storage, milling and hexane extraction of volatiles. A comparative GC/MS analysis of volatiles extracted from inflorescence samples and present in the distilled lavender oils derived from single bushes of seven Bulgarian lavender cultivars was carried out. The GC/MS analysis identified a total of 32 individual volatiles including all 11 volatiles included in the lavender ISO Standard 3515. The analysis of three parallel hexane extracts from the same inflorescence samples showed good reproducibility of the determined relative abundances of the analyzed volatiles. The relation of the GC/MS data on inflorescence volatiles with the composition of the distilled lavender essential oils was evaluated through analysis of the volatile recovery rates for the analyzed cultivars. The performed ANOVA test of the variances of the calculated recovery rates of individual volatiles showed that they are significantly influenced by the studied cultivars. The possibilities for application of the applied extraction procedure and comparative analysis of flower and inflorescence volatile compositions for large sets of lavender accessions and segregating populations are discussed.

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Research effect of application of herbicides raft 400 SC for growing of lavender

D. Angelova, H. Lambev

Abstract. The survey was conducted during the period 2008 – 2009 at Institute of Roses, Essential and Medicinal Cultures, Kazanlak. The experiment is set in the plantation of lavender variety Hebar. The efficacy and selectivity of the herbicide Raft 400 SC is studied in doses of 1 l/ha and 1,2 l/ha. It was found that oxadiargyl administered at dose 1,2 l/ha has a higher level of performance against annual and perennial weeds. The herbicide has excellent selectivity for lavender and has a positive effect on fresh weight yield.

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Evaluation of the stability and adaptability of the Bulgarian lavender sorts yield

In the years 2005-2009 six Bulgarian sorts of lavender were tested for fresh blossom yield and essential oil yield, as well as one seed population, formed by the seed offspring of these sorts. With all studied sorts and seed population, the fresh raceme yield and the essential oil yield are mostly affected by the specific interaction between the genotype and the current year conditions of cultivation – 69% and 80.4%. The “Druzhba”, “Sevtopolis”, “Yubileina” and “Hebar” sorts are characterised with a high adaptability, but they retain their yield stability only when the soil and climate conditions of cultivation are good. The “Hemus”, and “Raya” sorts and their seed population give highly stable yields even in less favourable conditions of cultivation.

Еvaluation of the stability and adaptability of the Bulgarian lavender sorts yield

S. Stanev