Yield and seed quality of some soybean (Glycine max. L) varieties, cultivated in Osmaniye region, Turkey

F.F. Aşik, R. Yildiz

 

Oil Seeds Research Institute, 80950 Osmaniye, Turkey

 

DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.042

(Manuscript received 21 May 2018; accepted for publication 2 August 2018)

 

Abstract. This study was carried out to determine yield and seed quality of 14 soybean varieties (Blaze, Ataem-7, Bravo, İlksoy, Çetinbey, Nova, Atakişi, Cinsoy, Adasoy, Umut-2002, Türksoy, Arısoy, HA.16-21 and SA-88), conducted with 3 replicates, according to the Randomized Block Experimental Design in the Osmaniye region, Turkey during 2016 growing season. Plant height, seed number per pod, first pod height, number of branches per plant, number of pods per node, number of pods per plant, harvest index, protein content, oil content, hundred seed weight, seed yield and fatty acid composition were the parameters examined. It was found that the controlled parameters values at different soybean varieties ranged as follows: plant height – between 69.47cm (Blaze) and 101.83cm (HA.16-21); number of seeds per pod – between 1.82 units/pod (Adasoy) and 2.21 units/pod (Blaze); first pod height – between 13.10cm (Blaze) and 22.53 cm (Umut-2002); number of branches per plant – between 1.07 units/plant (HA.16-21) and 3.00 units/plant (Nova); number of pods per node – between 2.43 units/node (Umut-2002) and 4.81 units/node (Adasoy); number of pods per plant – between 27.40 units/plant (Umut-2002) and 47.73 units/plant (Adasoy); Harvest Index values – between 43.99% (HA.16-21) and 54.72% (Ataem) – 55.42% (Blaze); protein content – between 36.09% (Nova) and 39.17% (Çetinbey); oil content – between 15.71% (Blaze) and 19.73% (Türksoy) – 19.82% (Arısoy); 100 seed weight – between 12.54g (Arısoy) and 19.18g (Çetinbey); seed yield – between 2470.41 kg/ha (Arısoy) and 3280.03 kg/ha (Adasoy); acid composition values: palmitic acid – from 9.97% (Türksoy) to 11.47% (Çetinbey); stearic acid – from 3.82% (Ataem-7) to 4.38% (Türksoy); oleic acid – from 22.39% (Bravo) to 28.14% (Çetinbey); linoleic acid – from 47.30% (Çetinbey) to 53.26%  (Ataem-7) and linolenic acid – from 5.49% (Türksoy) to 6.88% (Bravo). The soybean varieties tested showed different advantages over the individual parameters: in terms of seed yield – Adasoy (3280.03 kg/ha) and Atakişi (3260.60 kg/ha) varieties; in terms of protein content – Çetinbey (39.17%) followed by SA-88 (38.55%) genotype; in terms of oil content – Türksoy variety (19.82%) followed by Arisoy (19.73%) variety; in terms of fatty acid composition the results are very diverse.

 

Optimization of formulations with balanced biochemical composition and possibilities for their extrusion

M. Ruskova1*, T. Petrova1, I. Bakalov1, N. Penov2, A. Simitchiev2

1Food Research and Development Institute, 154 V. Aprilov, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
2Department of Canning and Refrigeration Technology, Technological Faculty, University of Food Technologies, 26 Maritza, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 10 June 2015; accepted for publication 9 May 2016)

Abstract. Combinations of different raw materials (beans, einkorn wheat, and buckwheat) for obtaining formulations with high protein content and balanced amino acid composition were studied using simplex centroid design. The target functions for optimization were content of protein, sulfur-containing amino acid methionine and cysteine, lysine, and tryptophan. The optimal area of combinations of raw materials in the food formulas with balanced biochemical composition was obtained. Optimized ternary mixture consisting of 50% bean, 40% einkorn wheat, and 10% buckwheat with different moisture content (16, 22, and 28%) has been extruded in a laboratory single screw extruder (Brabender 20 DN, Germany). Extrusion parameters were as follows: feed screw speed 50 rpm, die diameter 3 mm, screw compression ratio 2:1, temperature profile 100/140/160ºC, screw speed 160 rpm. The three extrudates with different initial moisture were evaluated by sectional expansion index, water absorption index, water solubility index, and density, with the aim of choosing the best treatment. The results demonstrated that the 22% initial moisture content yielded an extrudate with good physicochemical characteristics overall but an optimization study is needed to confirm this.
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Composition, digestibility, feeding value estimation of forage pea (Pisum sativum L.) varieties and hybrids in breeding process and genetic advance evaluation

Y. Naydenova*, V. Kosev

Institute of Forage Crops, 89 Gen. Vladimir Vazov, 5800 Pleven, Bulgaria

Abstract. Compositionanddigestibilityarestudiedandpotentialforagefeedingvalueisestimatedofeightbreedingspringandwinterforms–twoBulgarian and two Russian varieties and their four hybrids, presented as Component A – winter forms and Component B – spring forms. Forage quality is evaluated in three vegetative stages of plants, grown in Competitive variety trial (2011 –2013) on the Second Experimental Field of the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven: budding stage, beginning of flowering stage and full pod formation stage. The parameters of principal composition (Weende analysis), plant cell walls fiber components content (Van Soest detergent analysis), enzyme in vitro digestibility of dry and organic matter (method Aufrere), potential energy and protein feeding value by different systems are analyzed, determined and estimated. The correlation relations between parameters are established. The highest values forthecrudeproteincontentbreedingformsappearinbuddingstage:CP23.55±7.75% andthehighestaveragedigestibilityinthefullpodformationstage, which is a stage of technological maturity of varieties and hybrids: Digestibility of dry matter (IVDMD) 70.00±3.32% and Digestibility of organic matter (IVOMD 71.28±3.06%). Potential energy feeding value of the forage biomass average for all breeding accessions is the highest at full pod formation stage and protein feeding value – at budding stage. Genetic advance is evaluated by Principal Component Analysis, Cluster analysis and heritability (broad sense) is established.

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Common winter wheat lines with complex resistance to rusts and powdery mildew combined with high biochemical index

V. Ivanova*, S. Doneva, Z. Petrova

Dobroudzha Agricultural Institute, 9520 General Toshevo, Bulgaria

Abstract. During 2009 – 2011 at Dobroudzha Agricultural Institute, General Toshevo, Bulgaria the response of 365 new common winter wheat lines to the cause agents of brown rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks.), powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) and stem rust (P. graminis f. sp. tritici) was investigated. The resistance of the released 84 lines was also followed with regard to the separate pathotypes of Puccinia triticina at stage 2nd leaf under controlled climatic conditions. The lines were divided into six groups according to the class of resistance they were referred to for each pathogen. The biochemical indices characterizing grain quality, protein and the limiting amino acid lysine were studied. The lines with the highest content of lysine and protein were pointed out for each group. The released lines possess important properties from breeding and practical point of view. These lines combine complex resistance to the three economically most important diseases on wheat in Bulgaria: brown rust, powdery mildew and stem rust. The high immunity of the new common winter wheat lines is combined with high biochemical grain index, an equally valuable property of wheat. The content of raw protein in grain and the amount of lysine will focus the breeding efforts on developing new wheat varieties with high grain quality. In this sense the new lines of common winter wheat can be interesting sources of genes since disease resistance and grain quality are priorities in modern wheat breeding.

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Comparative study of some biochemical indicators in Karakachan and Copper-Red Shumen sheep breeds

G. Angelov, I.Dimitrova, T. Mehmedov, P. Stamberov, N. Stancheva, S. Georgieva, Zh. Nakev
Abstract. The survey covers 140 clinically healthy sheep from two indigenous sheep breeds – Karakachan (KK)and Copper-Red Shumen (CRS) over one year old. Blood samples are taken from v. jugularis, and using a semi-automatic biochemical analyzer were determined in serum levels of blood sugar, total serum protein and albumin, creatinine, urea, calcium, inorganic phosphorus and magnesium. The results obtained indicated that the levels of total protein (75.81±7.03 for KK and 72.19±5.64 for CRS), albumin (44.85±6.43 for KK and 42.09±4.06 for CRS), creatinine (183.35±291.77 for KK and 128.30±45.70 for CRS) and urea (9.30±3.90 for KK and 11.10±5.76 for CRS) in Karakachan breed are poorly higher than those of the Copper – Red Shumen. The values of blood sugar (2.89±0.49 for KK and 2.49±0.57 for CRS), calcium (2.30±0.41 for KK and 2.22±0.33 for CRS), inorganic phosphorus (1.94±0.64 for KK and 1.94±0.44 for CRS) and magnesium (1.23±0.29 for KK and 1.14±0.20 for CRS) showed no breed differences. The significant differences between the two breeds were obtained only in value of both creatinine and blood sugar.

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