Productivity and quality of experimental sunflower hybrids in climatically different years

M. Drumeva*

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering and Technologies, Technical University of Varna, 1 Studentska str., 9010 Varna, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 5 September 2020; accepted for publication 16 January 2021)

Abstract. The main purpose of sunflower breeding requires the developing of high-yielding hybrid varieties with broad ecological plasticity that would guarantee the stability of the yield and the quality of the production from them. This investigation involved 10 experimental F1 hybrid combinations developed with the participation of double haploid fertility restorer lines (DHR) obtained through the method of gamma-induced parthenogenesis in combination with embryo culture. The aim of the investigation was to study the productivity and quality of the seeds from the new experimental sunflower hybrid varieties with a view of their future use in practice. The experimental work included years 2014 and 2015, which were significantly different with regard to the climatic conditions. The experiments were carried out in the experimental field and the laboratory of the Technical University in Varna. The hybrid combinations were assessed according to the main parameters of sunflower productivity, namely seed yield (kg/ha) and oil yield (kg/ha), as well as according to the main quality parameter of sunflower seeds – oil percent in seed. Under the conditions of this investigation, the analysis of the results showed that the genotype potential of the hybrids was determining for the seed and oil yield; a relatively high effect of the year conditions was also established for the parameter oil yield. The percent of oil in seeds was determined on the basis of the genotype, and the effect of the year was considerably lower. Summing up the results from the testing of the experimental hybrids, it can be pointed out that three of the studied hybrid combinations (3607A х 112DHR, 3607A х 123DHR and 3607A х 167DHR) realized good production potential under variable agro-meteorological conditions and can find future realization in practice.

Registration of a new sunflower hybrid – Sevar

  1. Peevska1*, M. Drumeva2, G. Georgiev1

(Manuscript received  2017; accepted for publication 5 February 2018)

 Abstract. The aim of the present article was to introduce the new Bulgarian sunflower hybrid Sevar, which since 2015 has been included in the European Catalog of Field and Vegetable Crop Varieties. Sunflower hybrid Sevar was developed at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute (DAI), General Toshevo. The hybrid is male sterile, two-linear and was obtained by interlinear hybridization. The parental components are line 807А, which possesses cytoplasmic male sterility, and the father line is 509R, a branched fertility restorer line developed through in vitro methods. The two lines demonstrated very good combining ability. Sevar is an early maturing hybrid, with duration of the vegetation period of 107–110 days. Plant height is within the range of 155-160cm, and the head diameter is 26–29cm. The seeds have absolute weight 48–57g and oil content 49–50%. The oil is of linoleic type. The percent of kernel in the seed is 75 – 76%, and the protein in the whole seed is 19–20%. The weight of seeds per plant is 69-80g, and the number of seeds is 1150-1300. The duration of flowering is 10–12 days. The maximum seed yield obtained in the experimental fields of DAI is 4300 kg/ha, and in the neighboring Romania – 6406 kg/ha. In the breeding fields of DAI, the hybrid was tested three years according to a scheme approved for this crop. During the testing period, Sevar exceeded the mean standard by seed yield with 2.7–11.8%. By oil yield, the exceeding during the three years was within 3.5 – 19.1%. The highest yield was observed in 2010 – 4002 kg/ha seed yield and 1985 kg/ha oil yield. The oil content of this hybrid reached 49.6% and was higher than the standards San Luka and Brio. Sevar is resistant to the economically important diseases downy mildew (up to race 731) and the parasite Orobanche (up to race F). Hybrid Sevar was registered in Romania with certificate No. 4934/09.06.2015 and was included in the European Catalog of Field and Vegetable Crop Varieties.

Selectivity and stability of herbicides and their tank mixtures for the seed yield of sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.)

G. Delchev1*, T. Barakova2

1Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Field Crops Institute, 6200 Chirpan, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 16 May 2016; accepted for publication 11 August 2016)

Abstract. The research was conducted during 2012 – 2014 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation were 4 sunflower hybrids (Helianthus annuus L.): hybrid Bacardy (an imitolerant hybrid by ClearField plus technology), hybrid Estiva (an imitolerant hybrid by ClearField technology), hybrid Sumico (a tribenuron-methyl tolerant hybrid by ExpessSun technology) and hybrid Arizona (a hybrid by conventional technology). Factor A included the years of investigation. Factor B, herbicides and tank mixtures, included 20 rates. It includes 3 variants by ClearField plus technology, 5 variants by ClearField technology, 5 variants by ExpessSun technology and 7 variants by conventional technology. All variants are on herbicide Gardoprim plus gold 500 SC (S- metolachlor + terbuthylazine) – 3.5 l/ha, which treated after sowing before emergence of the sunflower. It is found that the highest seed yield is obtained at herbicide tank mixture Pulsar plus + Stomp aqua by ClearField plus technology. Tank mixture Listego + Dash + Sharpen by ClearField technology and Express + Trend + Select super by ExpressSun technology also lead to obtaining high seed yields. The most unstable are secondary weed infested checks by the fourth technologies for sunflower growing which are treated with soil-applied herbicide Gardoprim plus gold only. Technologically the most valuable are herbicide combination Pulsar plus + Stomp aqua and herbicide Pulsar by ClearField plus technology, tank mixtures Listego + Dash + Sharpen and Listego + Dash by ClearField technology and Express + Trend + Select super and Express + Lactofol B + Select super by ExpressSun technology. Tank mixtures of herbicides Smerch, Pendigan, Wing, Raft, Pledge and Modown with Amalgerol premium by conventional technology have low estimates due to insufficient control of some weeds in sunflower crops.

Characterization of the Bulgarian sunflower hybrid Valin

G. Georgiev*

Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, 9520 General Toshevo, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 1 July 2016; accepted for publication 26 August 2016)

Abstract. A male sterile two-linear sunflower hybrid was developed at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute – General Toshevo using the method of inter-linear hybridization. The mother component is line 10517 which possesses cytoplasmic male sterility, and the father component is line 10595R, a fertility restorer of branched type. Both parental forms have very good general and specific combining ability. Hybrid Valin is medium early, with vegetation period of 110 – 115 days, plant height 165 – 175 cm and head diameter 17 – 18 cm. The percent of kernel in seed is within the range of 65 – 73%. Seeds have absolute weight 50 – 55 g, and oil content in seed is 46 – 50%. The hybrid is resistant to lodging and moderately resistant to phoma and phomopsis. The resistance to downy mildew is as high as 95 % up to race 700, and the resistance to the parasite Orobanche is 100% (races A-F). In the breeding fields of DAI the hybrid went through three- year testing according to a scheme and growing technology approved for this crop. During the first two years of the control testing it exceeded the mean standard by seed yield with 11.0% and 14.4%, respectively. During the third year, hybrid Valin was above the mean standard with 10.9% by seed yield and with 6.6% by oil yield in a unified competitive varietal testing. The maximum yield obtained at DAI was 4483 kg/ha, and the maximum oil content was 50.1%. In 2007 and 2008 hybrid Valin went through official testing within the structure of the Executive Agency of Variety Testing, Field Inspection and Seed Control of Bulgaria. By the index seed yield, the exceeding of the mean standard was 23.6 % in the first year, and in the second the yield was with 1.4 % below the standard. Oil content was a little below the standard in both years. The aim of this investigation was to make as full as possible a characterization of the new registered sunflower hybrid Valin on the base of biological,phytopatological and economical indices.

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Selectivity and stability of new herbicides and herbicide combinations for the seed yields of some field crops

G. Delchev*

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 28 January 2016; accepted for publication 30 May 2016)

Abstract. During 2013 – 2015 on pellic vertisol soil type was conducted a field experiment. Under investigation was Bulgarian milk thistle cultivar Silmar (Silybum marianum Gaertn.). Factor A included the years of investigation. Factor B included no treated check, 6 soil-applied herbicides – Tendar EC, Sharpen 33 EC, Merlin flex 480 SC, Smerch 24 ЕC, Raft 400 SC, Eagle 75 DF and 5 foliar-applied herbicides – Kalin flo, Eclipse 70 DWG, Sultan 500 SC, Granstar super 50 SG, Starane 250 EK. Factor C included no treated check and 1 antigraminaceous herbicide – Tiger platinium 5 EC. All herbicides, herbicide combinations and herbicide tank-mixtures were applied in a working solution of 200 l/ha. Mixing of foliar-applied herbicides was done in the tank on the sprayer. Soil-applied herbicides were treated during the period after sowing before emergence. Foliar-applied herbicides were treated during rosette stage of the milk thistle. Tank mixtures of antigraminaceous herbicide Tiger platinum with foliar herbicides Kalin flo, Eclipse, Sultan, Granstar super and Starane leads to obtaining high seed yields of milk thistle. High yields seeds are also obtained by foliar treatment with Tiger platinum after soil-applied herbicides Raft, Sharpen and Eagle. The use of the soil-applied herbicides Smerch, Merlin flex and Tendar does not increase the seed yield due to its higher phytotoxicity against milk thistle. Herbicide Tendar and herbicide combination Tendar + Tiger platinum are the most unstable, followed by herbicide Merlin flex. Herbicide tank-mixtures Kalin flo + Tiger platinum and Eclipse + Tiger platinum and herbicide combination Raft + Tiger platinum are technologically the most valuable. They combine high seed yield with high stability with relation to different years. Single application of soil-applied or foliar-applied herbicides have low estimate; due to that they must be combined for full control of weeds in milk thistle crops.

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Selectivity and stability of new herbicides and herbicide combinations for the seed yields of some field crops I. Effect at Coriander (Coriandrum Sativum L.)

G. Delchev*

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 28 January 2016; accepted for publication 2 March 2016)

Abstract. . The research was conducted during 2013 – 2015 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation was Bulgarian coriander cultivar Lozen 1 (Coriandrum sativum L.). The purpose of the investigation was to establish the selectivity and stability of some herbicides, herbicide combinations and herbicide tank mixtures on the coriander. Factor A included the years of investigation. Factor B included no treated check, 6 soil-applied herbicides – Tendar EC, Silba SC, Sharpen 33 EC, Merlin flex 480 SC, Smerch 24 ЕC, Raft 400 SC and 5 foliar-applied herbicides – Kalin flo, Eclipse 70 DWG, Sultan 500 SC, Corrida 75 DWG, Lontrel 300 EC. Factor C included no treated check and 1 antigraminaceous herbicide – Tiger platinium 5 EC. Soil-applied herbicides were treated during the period after sowing before emergence. Foliar-applied herbicides were treated during rosette stage of the coriander. It is found that tank mixtures of Tiger platinum with foliar herbicides Kalin flo, Eclipse, Sultan, Corrida and Lontrel lead to obtaining of high seed yields. High yields of coriander seeds also are obtained by foliar treatment with antigraminaceous herbicide Tiger platinum after soil-applied herbicides Raft, Smerch, Sharpen, Silba and Tendar. The use of the soil-applied herbicide Merlin flex does not increase the seed yield, due to its higher phytotoxicity on coriander. The most unstable are herbicide Merlin flex and herbicide combination Merlin flex + Tiger platinum. Technologically the most valuable are herbicide combination Raft + Tiger platinum and herbicide tank- mixture Kalin flo + Tiger platinum. Self-use of soil-applied or foliar-applied herbicides have low estimate due to they must to combine for full control of weeds in coriander crops.

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Vokil – a new Bulgarian sunflower hybrid

G. Georgiev*, V. Encheva, N. Nenova, Y. Encheva, D. Valkova, P. Peevska, G. Georgiev

Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, 9520 General Toshevo, Bulgaria

Abstract. The new Bulgarian sunflower hybrid Vokil was developed at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute (DAI), General Toshevo, Bulgaria by the method of inter linear hybridization. It is a male fertile two-linear hybrid, a cross between line 217 as the mother component possessing cytoplasmic male sterility, and line 340 R, the father fertility restorer component. The two parental lines have very good general and specific combining ability. Hybrid Vokil is early maturing, with growing period of 122 – 125 days, plant height 150 – 160 cm, and head diameter 18 – 21 cm. Seed oil is of linoleic type, and its content is 49 – 51%. Thousand seed weight is 53 – 58 g, the number of seeds per inflorescence is 1180 – 1360, and their weight per plant is 81 – 91 g. The percent of kernel in seed is 72 – 75%. The duration of flowering is 11 – 13 days. The flowering times of the mother and father lines coincide after simultaneous planting, which is a great advantage in the production of hybrid seeds. The planting scheme is 10:2 (mother to father rows) allowing maximum utilization of the area. The father line is taller than the mother line, strongly branched and rich in pollen. Hybrid Vokil went through full approved testing in the breeding fields of DAI. The cross was under control testing for two years, then it was submitted to one-year competitive varietal trial. During the three years of testing the hybrid exceeded the mean standard with 104.9 – 114.9%, the maximum obtained yield being 4570 kg/ha, with oil yield 2344 kg/ha. Oil content in seed reached 51.7%. The official testing of hybrid Vokil was done in Romania for three years, at 10 locations. Averaged for the three years, the seed yield per ha exceeded the mean standard with 3%. Seed yield was within1943–4515kg/haatalllocationsduringthethreeyears,highestresultsaccordingtothisindexbeingobtained inthelastyearoftheofficialtesting– 3635 kg/ha. The mean seed yield from all locations during the entire testing was 3417 kg/ha. In 2013 hybrid Vokil was officially registered in Romania with certificate No 5428/07.08.2013 and was enlisted in the European catalogue of field and vegetable crop varieties.

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Effect of the sowing norm and nitrogen fertilization on the yield from dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Beslet

G. Milev
Abstract. During 2010 – 2012 a field trial was carried out with the new cultivar Beslet in the trial field of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute on slightly leached vertisol. The aim of the investigation was to find out the optimal sowing and nitrogen norms for this cultivar under the conditions of slightly leached vertisol in Dobrudzha region. Five sowing norms were tested: 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 germinating seeds per m2, as well as four variants of nitrogen fertilization: 0, 40, 80, and 120 kg/ha against phosphorus background of 60 kg/ha. The trial was designed according to the split plot method, with four replications of the variants, the size of the harvest plot being 12 m2. The sowing norm of 45 g.s. / m2 was found the most efficient with regard to yield from cultivar Beslet. Nitrogen fertilization increased seed yield, the rate of increase being the highest with the lowest nitrogen norm – N P . Subsequent increase of the sowing norm did not go together 40 80 with the same rate of yield increase. One thousand seed weight reached a maximum as early as the second sowing norm (35 g.s. /m2) and fertilization norm N P . The effect of the investigated factors on yield structure generally followed the same model of variation as yield itself. The effect of the sowing norm on the 120 80 yield components was better expressed than the effect of nitrogen fertilization. The highest effect on the three investigated indices was determined for the respective year conditions. The highest yield was obtained in the first year of the investigation: 2010, i.e. the year with optimal conditions for expression of the biological potential of cultivar Beslet.

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Stability of herbicides and herbicide tank-mixtures at winter oilseed canola by influence of different meteorological conditions

G. Delchev
Abstract. During the period 2010 – 2012, on the experimental field of the Field Crops Institute – Chirpan was carried out a field experiment with conventional Maximus hybrid PR44D06 (Brassica napus). A total of 15 variants were investigated. Canola hybrid from Maximus product line which is included in the study eliminates the need for growth regulators. The efficacy of the herbicide Salsa when used separately without the other partner herbicide is higher when treated with adjuvant Trend compared to adjuvants Codacide and Silvet. At tank mixtures of Salsa and Butizan, herbicide efficacy and crop long action against weeds are higher when they are introduced with adjuvant Codacide. When herbicide tank mixture Salsa + Pantera is treated with adjuvant Codacide synergism is accounted. At tank mixtures of Salsa + Agil, higher efficiency is accounted in its joint use with adjuvant Trend. Technologically the most valuable are tank mixtures of herbicides Salsa and Butizan with adjuvant Codacide, followed by these with adjuvant Trend. From the viewpoint of technology for growing winter oilseed canola, high rating also have tank mixtures of Salsa with antigrass herbicides Pantera and Agil, followed by that of Salsa with Runway. Combinations of Salsa with adjuvants Trend, Codacide and Silvet, but without a partner herbicide, have low rating because they are inefficient against grassy weeds and absence of soil action.
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