Clinical toxicological investigations on acute carbofuran intoxication in quails (Coturnix coturnix)

R. Binev1*, I. Valchev1, R. Mihaylov2, Y. Nikolov1

1Department of Internal Non-Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Department of Animal Morphology, Physiology and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 7 September 2016; accepted for publication 19 October 2016)

Abstract. The present studiy was conducted to evaluate the toxic effects of the carbamate insecticide carbofuran (Carbosan 35 ST) after experimental acute intoxication in quails (Coturnix coturnix). Experiments for monitoring of changes in clinical indices and some haematological parameters. Quails were divided into 5 groups: one control and 4 experimental. They were treated by increasing single doses of the tested pesticide: 1.05 mg/kg (experimental group I), 2.1 mg/kg (experimental group II), 5.25 mg/kg (experimental group III) and 10.5 mg/kg (experimental group IV), corresponding to 1/10 LD50, 1/5 LD50, 1/2 LD50 and LD50 oral doses for albino rats, respectively. In three consecutive days prior to the treatment (hours –48, –24 and 0) and 1, 3, 5, 7, 24 and 48 hours thereafter, the clinical status was registered to evaluate rectal body temperature, faeces excretion, locomotion, perception etn. and were obtained blood samples from v. subcutanea ulnaris or v. metatarsea ulnaris for analysis of haemoglobin content (HGB). It was found out that the tested carbamate insecticide had some toxic effects manifested clinically with hyperaemia, arexia, difficulty in focusing the eyes, salivation with thick saliva discharge, diarrhoea, generalised tremor, clonic tonic spasms (especially of cervical muscles), depression and hypochromaemia. The described changes were the most obvious between post treatment hours 1 and 3, and then the studied parameters regained their control values. The tolerated dose of carbofuran was 1.05 mg/kg (1/10 LD50 for albino rats), the minimum toxic dose was 2.1 mg/kg (1/5 LD50 for albino rats), and minimum lethal dose – 10.5 mg/kg, equal to LD50 for albino rats.