Influence of soybean meal replacement with high-protein sunflower meal on “Clarcs of energy distribution/protein transformation” in broiler chickens

S. Chobanova1, D. Penkov2*

1Department of Morphology, Physiology and Nutrition, Section Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agronomy, Agricultural University, 12 D. Mendeleev Str., 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 28 May 2021; accepted for publication 30 June 2021)

Abstract. The aim of the study is to compare the net utilization of energy and protein in the eco-technical chain „feed-meat“ when replacing part of the soybean meal with high-protein sunflower meal in broiler fattening. One control and 3 experimental groups, 4-phases fattening with isoenergetic and isoprotein combined fodders. Main protein source in the fodders for the control group is soybean meal. Replacement with sunflower meal: First experimental group: Starter – 5%, Grower – 8%, Finisher 1 – 10% and Finisher 2 – 10%; Second experimental group: 15, 18, 25 and 25%, respectively; Third experimental group: 34.25, 27.27, 27.27 and 26%, respectively. Clarcs of energy distribution/protein transformation (CED/CPT) are the ratio between accumulated gross energy/crude protein in breast and thigh muscles and consumed metabolic energy/crude protein throughout life. The following results were established: CED “fodder – breast+thigh muscles”: Control – 0.2430, first experimental group – 0.2394, second experimental group – 0.2505, third experimental group – 0.2334; CPT – 0.6080, 0.5050, 0.5280 and 0.5490, respectively.

Productive performance of broiler birds fed Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit meal containing diets

C.E. Ogbonna1, U.H. Ukpabi2, P.C. Jiwuba1*, E.B. Onwujiariri1 

1Department of Animal Production Technology, Federal College of Agriculture, P.M.B.7008, Ishiagu,

Ebonyi State, Nigeria

2Department of Agriculture, Abia State University, P.M.B. 7010 Umuahia, Abia state, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 5 January 2020; accepted for publication 20 March 2020)

Abstract. A forty-two day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of diets containing Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit meal on the productive performance of broilers on feed intake, body weight, carcass and organ characteristics. Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit was processed and incorporated in the diets at 0%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% dietary levels, represented as T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively, for both starter (7-28 days of age) and finisher phase (28-49 days of age). One hundred and twenty unsexed abor acre broiler birds were brooded for seven days and thereafter 30 birds were randomly allotted to four treatments in a completely randomized design (CRD) and each treatment was replicated three times with 10 birds per replicate. The data collected showed significant (p<0.05) differences for feed intake, body weight changes and feed conversion ratio for both starter and finisher broilers. Live weight, dressed weight and dressing percentage were significantly better for T1 across the treatments (p<0.05). Wing, drumstick breast muscle and thigh cuts were significantly improved at the treatment groups (p<0.05). The gizzard, heart, and spleen were significantly (p<0.05) higher at T1. Liver also differed significantly (p<0.05) with T4 having the highest weight over other treatments. It could therefore be concluded that T2 produced the best body weight and should be recommended for enhanced broiler production.

Effects of aflatoxin В1 on production traits, humoral immune response and immunocompetent organs in broiler chickens

Abstract. The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxin В1 (AFB1) on production traits (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion), antibody titre (antihaemagglutinins) after vaccination against Newcastle disease, relative weights of immunocompetent organs (thymus, spleen, bursa of Fabricius) and changes in their morphology. Also, the study aimed at testing the possibility for prevention of toxic effects of AFB1 by supplementation of poultry feed with the mycosorbent (Mycotоx NG). The experiments were conducted with five groups of ten 7-day-old Cobb broiler chickens in each. The formed groups were: group I – control, fed a standard compound feed; group II – experimental, whose feed was supplemented with 1 g/kg Mycotox NG, group III – experimental, receiving 0.5 mg/kg AFB1; group IV – experimental, receiving 0.8 mg/kg AFB1 and group V – experimental, supplemented with 0.5 mg/kg AFB1 and 1 g/kg Mycotox NG. The experiment’s duration was 42 days. Production traits were evaluated on days 21, 35 and 49 days of age. The differences in relative weights of immune organs between control and experimental groups were determined after the end of the trial. Antibody titres after vaccination against Newcastle disease were determined in blood samples collected from v. metatarsalis medialis on days 21 and 42. Lower weight gain, feed intake, increased feed conversion ratio and relative spleen weight were established in experimental groups ІІI and IV. At the same time, relative weights of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius were statistically significantly lower than those in controls. Lower antibody titres were demonstrated in groups III and IV vs untreated birds. Atrophy and degenerative changes were observed in immunocompetent organs of birds from groups ІІI and IV. The supplementation of the feed with 1 g/kg Mycotox NG resulted in statistically significant reduction of the deleterious effects of AFB1 on production traits, relative weights of immunocompetent organs and histological changes. Also, dietary supplementation of group V with mycosorbent protected birds against the inhibiting effect of AFВ1 on antibody formation against Newcastle disease.

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Haematology and some serum parameters of broilers fed decorticated fermented Prosopis africana seed meal

D. Hassan1, N. Yusuf1, M. Musa1, I. Musa-Azara1, R. Barde1, D. Ogah2*, A. Yakubu2, M. Ari2

Abstract. The study was carried out in Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria to compare the effect of decorticated fermented Prosopis africana seeds meal (DFPSM) on haematological and some biochemical values of broiler chickens. A total of 525 broiler chickens (7 days old) Anak 2000 were used. Five experimental diets containing 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% DFPSM replacement levels for full fat soya bean meal were fed to broilers for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), haemoglobin (HB), total protein, albumin and globulin. The results showed the highest PCV (34.32%) and HB (32 g/dl) was recorded on the broilers fed 75% (T ) DFPSM while the least of those values (29.52% and 7.20 g/dl) 4 respectively was recorded in control. There were significant differences (P<0.05) among the groups in PCV, RBC and MCV of the birds. The WBC, MCH and MCHC count showed no significant difference (P>0.05) among treatments. There was no significant (P<0.05) difference in the values of total serum protein, albumin and globulin. The results of this study indicate that DFPSM can be included in broiler diet at 75% level without any deleterious effects on blood parameters.

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Carcass traits, intestinal morphology and cooking yield of broilers fed different fermented soyabean meal based diets

M. M. Ari, B.A. Ayanwale, T. Z. Adama, E.A. Olatunji
Abstract. This study was conducted to compare the effects of different fermentation methods of soyabeans on carcass traits, intestinal morphology and cooking yield of broilers using 240 day-old Anak broilers that were allocated into 4 treatments of 3 replicates as thus: Soyabeans fermentation with lactobacillus as control group T1, Cooking and fermenting T2, Daddawa fermentationT3 and Cooking with potash before ferment T4 based groups. Five birds were selected from each group and fasted for 8 h prior to carcass evaluation. Live and plucked weights did not vary significantly (P>0.05) among processed broilers, significant (P<0.05) differences were recorded in the eviscerated weight. Other cut-up parts that vary significantly (P<0.05) include neck, breast, thighs, drumstick and back while head, wing and shank did not vary significantly (P>0.05). There were significant (P<0.05) variations in intestinal weight and organs like lungs, liver and gizzard, while heart, kidney, spleen and abdominal fat deposition showed no significant variation (P>0.05) between treatment. Variations in gastro-intestinal measurements did not follow any particular trend. Cooking yield was significantly (P<0.05) affected by treatment. Cook and ferment a simple solid state fermentation process has the potentials of producing best percentages of the fleshy parts, better meat/bone and cooking yield of broiler meat.odbutton

Effect of addition of multienzyme preparation VemoZyme®Plus on productive and slaughter parameters and meat composition of broiler chickens, fed wheat-corn-soybean meal diets

An experiment, lasting 42 days, was made to stady the еffect of addition of Bulgarian multienzyme complex VemoZyme®Plus on productive and slaughter performance and chemical meat composition of broiler chickens, fed wheat-corn-soybean meal based diets. In this trial 120 male one day old chickens of „Ross 308” hybrid, keep in battery cages, divided into 4 groups (distributed equally in three repetitions in each group) were used: 1. Positive control, fed with balanced diet ; 2. Positive control with addition of 0,05 % VemoZyme®Plus. 3. Negative control, fed with diet, contains 5 % less metabolizable energy(ME) and digestible essential amino acids (DEAA)–lisine, methionine+cistine, treonine. 4. Negative control with addition of 0.05% by VemoZyme®Plus. Tested enzyme preparation had no significant effect on the live weight, feed conversion, slaughter indices, protein and fat composition in the white meat of broiler chickens, fed with balanced diets. Addition of VemoZyme ® Plus to the diets of diminished nutritive value, increases (compared to the same, without addition of VemoZyme ® Plus) with 8,0 (P<0.05) and 5.7% (P<0.05) live weight, respectively through the grower and whole 42 days period, improved feed conversion with 11,0 (Р<0,05) and 4,7 % (Р>0,05) respectively through the grower and the whole fattening period, has a positive (Р<0,05) effect on grill weight (with 6,5 %), without significantly affecting percentage of protein and fat in the white meat, compared with the control group.

Effect of addition of multienzyme preparation VemoZyme®Plus on productive and slaughter parameters and meat composition of broiler chickens, fed wheat-corn-soybean meal diets

V. Georgieva, S. Chobanova , G. Ganchev, I. Manolov, D. Jarkov, M. Lalev, D. Stoianov

Effect from the addition of VemoZim F(phytase) on diets with decreased content of phosphorus on the microstructure of tibia in chickens broilers

The subject of the study was to investigate the effect of the addition of different doses of the new Bulgarian enzyme preparation – VemoZim F (activity 5000 FТU/g) to wheat-corn-soyabean meal diets, with 30% decreased content of available phosphorus on the microstructure of tibia in broiler chickens. The experiment was performed with 180 one-day-old male chick broilers (Ross 308), up to the age 38 days, bred in battery cages, distributed in 5 groups, with 36 numbers in each one, equalized by body weight. The chicks from the control group obtained balanced diet, according to the requirements of the used hybrid, and these from the experimental groups, with 30% deficit of phosphorus diets (0,35, 0,32 and 0,30% in the starter, grower and finisher, respectively). The compound feed of II nd group of chicks was without addition of VemoZim F, compared to ІІІ rd, ІV th and V th experimental groups, in whose diets, 150 g/t of VemoZim F was added correspondingly (recommended dose, providing 750 FТU/kg feed), 1500g/t of the investigated additive (10 times higher dose of phytase) and in the chicks from V th group 100 times more phytase than the recommended dose via the addition of 1500 g/t concentrate of phytase in VemoZim. The results of the histological analysis of tibial bone epiphysis showed, that in chickens that received 30% reduced content of available phosphorus without addition of VemoZimF, diversions in the ossification processes were observed, characteristic of phosphorus deficiency compared to the control. Remarkable differences in the chicken tibial microstructure from the control group and those that obtained 150 g/t VemoZimF (recommended dose, providing 750 FTU/kg feed) weren’t found. The increased level of phytase 10 and 100 times (respectively, 7 500 and 75 000 FТU/kg feed) in the chicken diet compared to the experimental group led to different degree of structure alterations, with identical kind and localization in the epiphyseal cartilage of the tibial bones.

Effect from the addition of VemoZim F(phytase) on diets with decreased content of phosphorus on the microstructure of tibia in chickens broilers

V. Georgieva, D. Yovchev, A. Atanasov

Comparison of the effects of Natuphos® 5 000 G and Optiphos® phytases utilization in broiler chicken feeding with maize-soybean diets

An experiment with 96 male broiler chickens (hybrid ROSS 308), distributed in 3 groups, 32 chickens each, was conducted. Each group consisted of
4 subgroups, 8 chickens each. Live weight, the retention of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus in the chickens’ organisms were monitored at the age of 1, 11, 29
и 42 days. The birds received 3 types of compound feed. The control group birds were fed a maize-soybean diet without phytase and the birds from the
experimental groups were fed a diet, supplemented by Natuphos 5000G or Optiphos phytase. Diets for all growing periods were balanced as to CP, Ca and
available phosphorus. In the phytase groups the total phosphorus quantity was decreased from 0.81% to 0.66% for the starter period, from 0.76 to 0.61% for
the grower one and from 0.72% to 0.56% for the finisher period. The obtained results showed that phytase supplementation to the maize-soybean diet
improved the utilization of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus and the tibia ash quantity in broiler chickens during the 0-42–day-period. For the whole fattening
period broilers fed maize-soybean diets supplemented by Natuphos or Feedophyt phytase had a reliably higher live weight by 10.95% and 11.93%,
respectively, in comparison with the group without phytase. The forage consumption for 1 kg weight gain in chickens decreased by 17.02% (p ≤ 0.01) on
average as a result of the use of exogenous phytase. By supplementing phytase to a maize-soybean diet the quantity of dicalcium phosphate decreased by
34% (0-42 days) thus reducing the price of compound forage.

Comparison of the effects of Natuphos® 5 000 G and Optiphos® phytases utilization in broiler chicken feeding with maize-soybean diets

P. Valkova