Evaluation of technological traits of Bulgarian and imported merino wool batches

D. Pamukova*

Department of Animal Science – Ruminants and Dairy Farming, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 10 August 2019; accepted for publication 22 November 2019)

Аbstract. The aim of the present study was to perform a comparative evaluation of technological traits of industrial batches of Bulgarian and imported semifine wool. The study was carried out in an industrial setting in cooperation with Kolhida Ltd, Sliven. A total of 18 batches originating from Bulgaria (n=10), Serbia (n=6) and the Netherlands (n=2) among which 4 batches of greasy wool, 7 batches of clean wool and 7 batches of wool sliver were studied. The primary processing of wool batches comprising classification, washing and carding was performed by textile enterprise’s standard technology. After the classification, the relative shares of wool types from the total amount of greasy wool in a batch were determined. The washing yield of classified greasy medium wool was calculated. The following laboratory analyses of clean wool were carried out: fibre diameter (μm), mean weighted length (mm), short fibre percentage (%), fatness (%), mineral matter content (dustiness %), vegetable matter content (%) and moisture (%). For slivers, sliver yield (%), fibre diameter (measured with OFDI), mean weighted length (mm), length В (mm), short fibre percentage (%) and moisture (%) were determined. In Bulgarian and Serbian batches, high-grade wool types predominated with highest share of the merino worsted wool (70.54% and 63.70%; 60.66% and 46.64%, respectively). The highest industrial washing yield was that of Dutch wool – 63.89%. Yields of Serbian and Bulgarian batches were similar (53.73%-56.39% and 53.20%-55.89%, respectively). The highest mean weighted length of fibres was determined for Dutch wool – 74.87 mm. Serbian and Bulgarian batches were comparable with respect to this trait: 63.95-65.71 mm and 62.92-65.88 mm respectively. The vegetable matter in studied wool batches was higher than requirements of the standard – from 1.29% tо 2.24% vs the reference of 1.2%. The highest vegetable matter content was found in the wool from two Bulgarian batches (1.65% and 2.24%), one Serbian (1.82%), and the Dutch batch (1.92%). Sliver yield varied from 81.31% tо 86.91% in studied wool slivers. The highest values of this trait were found out in 3 Bulgarian wool slivers (86.91%; 85.79% and 84.48%) and the Dutch sliver (84.13%).

Investigation on the technological traits of Bulgarian and imported merino wool batches

D. Pamukova*

Department of Animal Science – Ruminants and Dairy Farming, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

Abstract. The investigation was performed with industrial batches of merino wool originating from Bulgaria (1), Russia (2), Romania (2), Spain (1) and the Czech Republic (1). A total of 16 batches including 7 greasy wool batches, 5 clean wool batches and 4 wool sliver batches. The primary processing of wool batches (classification, washing and carding) was performed using the standard technologies applied at the textile enterprise. After the classification, the relative proportions of types vs the total amount of greasy wool were determined. Washing yields of classified greasy wool batches were established. Clean merino wool batches were submitted to the following laboratory tests: fibre diameter (μm), mean weighted length (mm), short fibre percentage (%), fatness (%), mineral matter content (%), vegetable matter content (%) and moisture (%). The parameters determined on ready wool slivers were as followed: yield (%), fibre diameter (measured with a lanameter, μm), mean weighted length (mm), length В (mm), short fibre percentage (%) and moisture (%).The two Russian wool batches were superior to all other tested batches with respect to high-grade wool content – 96.88% and 96.03%. They consisted exclusively of a single industrial class – grade 64s merino worsted wool (95.94% and 93.95% of batches, respectively). With regard to the relative share of merino worsted wool, the Bulgarian batch (40.98%) came after the Russian (96.88% and 96.03%), Romanian (batch 1) (90.23%) and Spanish wool (57.85%). Russian wool was superior to other batches with respect to washing yield (55.51%), mean weighted length (55.35 mm) and fibre cleanness (it had the lowest mineral (0.99%) and vegetable matter content (1.2%)). There were no considerable differences with respect to yield, mean weighted length and short fibre percentage between Spanish and batch 1 Romanian wool, although the mineral and vegetable matter percentages were significantly higher in Spanish clean wool. The batch from Czech and Bulgarian wool had higher fibre length, lower dustiness and less vegetable matter content than the Spanish batch, but its washing yield was lower. Compared to both Romanian batches, it occupied an intermediate position. The highest yield was established for slivers produced by Russian and Spanish wool – 80.63% and 80.12%. The yields of the other two batches were substantially lower (72.06% for Romanian and 70.54% for the mixed Bulgarian and Czech batch). The highest mean weighted fibre length was determined for slivers made from Russian wool (67.77 mm) whereas the lowest – for slivers produced from mixed Bulgarian and Czech batch (50.83 mm). The studied Russian wool batches were of greatest interest as their technological properties were concerned. Mixed with Bulgarian wool batches, they could be largely used to correct and improve the yield, short fibre length and proportion in clean wool and wool sliver.

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Grain sample quality assessment using Intechn and Unscrambler platforms

M. Mladenov, Ts. Draganova, R. Tsenkova

Abstract: A comparative analysis of the results obtained in quality assessment of maize grain samples using the INTECHN and Unscrambler platforms are presented in this paper. The INTECHN platform is developed within the frame of the research project “Development of Intelligent Technologies for Assessment of Quality and Safety of Food Agricultural Products”, founded by the Bulgarian National Science Fund. The sample elements are divided in nine quality groups according to their surface features, which are related to the surface color and surface texture. The assessment of these features is accomplished using an analysis of the object reflectance spectra. Three different INTECHN approaches are applied for feature extraction from spectra and for data dimensionality reduction: principal component analysis and combinations of two kinds of wavelet analyses and principal component analysis. Three classifiers, based on radial basis elements, are used for classification of the maize grain sample elements. The principal component analysis and the three Unscrambler classifiers (Linear discriminant analysis, Soft independent modeling of class analogy and Support vector machine) are used as referent tools. The validation, training and testing errors of the two platforms are evaluated and compared.

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Anthropogenically disturbed Soils and Methods for thier Reclamation

The present article summarizes the problematic issues, scientific quests and achievements related with lands reclamation during the past 40 (forty) years. The anthropogenic activities that alter natural landscapes and form a new anthropogenic relief are indicated here, as well as the consequences of those activities on the environment and the measures that apply to its recovery. We have outlined the classic and new leading technologies for reclamation of damaged areas. The characteristics of some specific objects for reclamation and the difficulties in their recovery are also described. We have reflected the advantages of interdisciplinary studies on damaged ecosystems and have presented the methods for their field and laboratory analyses and subsequent monitoring. Classifications and methodologies for agro-environmental assessment of the suitability of the various geological materials for reclamation are specified. We have also included a taxonomic list of some of thoroughly studied reclaimed lands in Bulgaria according to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB, 2007).

Anthropogenically disturbed Soils and Methods for thier Reclamation

M. Banov, V. Tsolova, P. Ivanov, M. Hristova