Ovarian cysts in sows: causes, frequency of occurrence – a review

  1. Szostak1*, A. Stasiak2, V. Katsarov3, T. Penev4

1Institute of Animal Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Biology and Animal Breeding, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Lublin, Poland

2Department of Pig Breeding and Production Technology, Faculty of Biology and Animal Breeding, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Lublin, Poland

3Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

4Department of Applied Ecology and Animal Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria


(Manuscript received 9 June 2017; accepted for publication 18 March 2018)


Abstract. The article presents the causes and frequency of occurrence of ovarian cysts in sows. The literature indicates that the pathogenesis of ovarian cysts is a complex process linked to dysfunction of the mechanisms responsible for ovarian follicle development and ovulation. Disturbances in hormonal interactions often originate in stress situations associated with difficulties in adaptation. According to many authors, large-scale farming places a substantial burden on animals, leading to disturbances in the homeostasis of the organism and thereby contributing to the occurrence of reproductive disorders. The authors of this paper have presented literature data and their own observations pertaining to the frequency of occurrence of ovarian cysts in herds of sows. They have described the symptoms accompanying this type of disorder and presented diagnostic methods, emphasizing the key role of post-slaughter evaluation of the reproductive organs of sows.

Reproductive performance of Polish Large White and Polish Landrace sows

B. Szostak, V. Katsarov
Abstract. Analyses of traits were conducted on six farms breeding Polish Large White pigs and six breeding Polish Landrace pigs. Farms were selected for the analysis based on their similar environmental conditions and the average size of the sow herds, which ranged from 18.8 to 34.9 sows. The sows were housed in groups in pens with straw. The material for analysis consisted of data from breeding documentation covering the period of 2011–2012. The Polish Large White and Polish Landrace sows on the farms analysed were characterized by a high average number of piglets born alive per litter (11.5–13.3). The high variation in this parameter on many farms confirms that further selection is advisable. The average number of litters obtained per sow per year on most of the farms analysed was lower than in countries in which pig breeding is more advanced. In order to be competitive in pork production, breeders should try to improve the number of litters per sow per year. This can be achieved by means of early weaning of piglets and the earliest possible fertilization of sows after lactation. All of this, however, requires optimal living conditions for the animals and their overall well-being.


Reproductive performance of weaning saws after treatment with Fertipig®

S. Dimitrov, G. Bonev
Abstract. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of hormonal treatment of lactating sows with a combination of 400 UI PMSG and 200 UI hCG one day before weaning. The treatment with Fertipig of a total of 88 sows induced estrus with an average period of 4.54±0.64 days after injection. It was established that the interval from the injection to the beginning of estrus had no significant effect on the main reproductive parameters. The animals with estrus up to 5 days after hormonal treatment had low percent of farrowing rate in comparison with sows showing estrus after 5 days – 87.80% and 93.61%, respectively. The significant effect was found in the sow’s parity number regarding live born piglets. More piglets were obtained from animals with up to 6 parities – 11.00±1.51 in comparison with sows with over 6 parities – 10.15±2.22 (р< 0.05). This factor does not have significant influence on the time of estrus appearance after hormonal injection and other reproductive parameters. This hormonal therapy is an effective way to improve the reproductive performance on commercial pig farms.


Induction of parturition in sows with prostaglandin analog Alfaprostol

S. Dimitrov, G. Bonev, I. Penchev, R Krejci

Abstract. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of intramuscular administration of 2 mg of alfaprostol in sows at the end of pregnancy in the induction of parturition. Ninety-six multiparous sows included in this trial were treated with alfaprostol between 111–115 days of gestation. The mean interval from injection to the birth of first piglet was 25,17±4,12 hours. The percentage of sows that farrowed during normal working hours (22 to 30 hours after injection) was 83%. The data showed that the days of gestation and the parity of animals as factors did not have significant effects on the onset of parturition. These results indicate that a single injection of 2 mg alfaprostol will successfully induce parturition the following day in the majority of the treated sows.