Behavior, sexual maturity and productive traits in gilts reared under different floor area

M. Kirov1, V. Doychev2*

Abstract. A trial with 16 gilts of Danubian White breed has been performed. The gilts have been divided into two groups (8 pigs per group) equal by origin, age and live weight. The experiment has been performed during the spring on 2012 year. The gilts from I group have been kept on floor area of 1.5 m2/head and the gilts from II group have been kept on floor area of 2.5 m2/head. Growth of gilts, age at first heating, back fat thickness, MLD thickness, carcass meat percent, age at first heating, behavior of gilts (movement, lying and feeding time) during pregnancy, number of live born and weaned pigs per sow have been controlled. The gilts kept on floor area of 2.5 m2/head have reached sexual maturity at an average age of 178,71 days, while their sisters kept on floor area of 1.5 m2/head at an average age of 199,50 days – 20,79 days later (P<0.001). The gilts kept in larger floor area had thinner back fat, more meat in the carcass, have moved more, have lied less, had more live born and weaned pigs.

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Tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Povolny) (Lepidoptera: gelechiidae) – first record in Bulgaria

The tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Povolny) is the most damaging pest of tomatoes in South America. In 2006 the pest was introduced by accident
in Spain and since then it has invaded many countries in South Europe and the Mediterranean region. In 2009 there were official reports for new invasions from
Greece, Switzerland, Malta, Portugal, Albania, France, Italy, Libya and countries from the Gulf region – Bahrain and Kuwait. In Bulgaria the National Service of
Plant Protection (NSPP) undertook a national survey for the detection of the tomato leaf miner using pheromone traps. On 16 October 2009 an official
statement was published on the website of NSPP for the presence of the tomato leaf miner in several glasshouses and in the field in South Bulgaria. At a
glasshouse with tomatoes near Plovdiv we observed a severe infestation by the pest which has rapidly spread after the last treatment with pesticides at the end
of August. The leaves were the most heavily damaged plant parts with an average of 9.42 and 8.75 mines per leaflet on the middle and upper layer of the canopy
resp., followed by the fruits. No damage on the stems was observed. Description of the pest stages, behavior, monitoring, prevention and control of the pest are
discussed.

Tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Povolny) (Lepidoptera: gelechiidae) – first record in Bulgaria

V. Harizanova, A. Stoeva, M. Mohamedova

Loading of integrated fishponds with organic matter under different approaches of mule ducks (Anas platyrhynchos x Cairina moschata) feeding

The effect of the feeding regime of mule ducks on loading of fishponds with organic matter in integrated fish-cum-duck technology was studied at theInstitute of Fisheries and Aquaculture – Plovdiv. The stocking density of the ducklings was 340 pcs.ha-1. The coefficient of loading (Ì) was used for establishing the pond loading: where N is the mean number of ducks in the rotation; t – rotation length in days; W – average live weight of theducks for the growing period, kg; 96 g – the amount of the manure released for a day by one duck per kg of live weight ; P – pond surface area,ha; r – relative stay of the ducks in water out of the active time of days.Two regimes of feeding the mule ducks were studied. It was establishedthat when fed on a balanced mixture, the mule ducks spent the bigger part of the day on land, as a result of which during the period of the study(40 days) the manure inserted in the pond amounted to 74.7 kg.ha-1. Substituting 50 % of the mixture with wheat, maize or sunflower groats(preserving the energy and protein levels), led to prolonging the average length of stay of the mule ducks in the pond almost 8 times. Due to themore significant differences in the time spent in the pond during the last ten-day periods, the manure released into water increased by morethan 10 times, although the live weight in all the periods was lower compared to the first variant.

Loading of integrated fishponds with organic matter under different approaches of mule ducks (Anas platyrhynchos x Cairina moschata) feeding

L. Nikolova