Zoo-hygienic assessment of lighting in semi-open freestall barns for dairy cows

D. Dimov

Department of Applied Ecology and Animal Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 1 September 2018; accepted for publication 16 January 2019)

Abstract. The aim of the present study was to perform a zoo-hygienic assessment of lighting (natural and artificial) in different technological zones (stalls, manure and feed alleys) in semi-open freestall barns for dairy cows. The survey was conducted over a period of one year in 3 production buildings from 3 cattle farms located in three different areas of Southern Bulgaria – Stara Zagora District, Haskovo District and Plovdiv District. The building’s parameters were as follows: building No.1 – capacity 120 cows, 60.00/18.00/3.00m, 1080m2; building No.2 – capacity 120 cows, 66.00/18.00/3.00m, 1188m2 and building No.3 – capacity 500 cows, 90.00/45.00/3.30m, 4050m2. The premises lighting was measured with two combined apparatuses (Lutron EM-9300SD, 0-20000 lux and PU 150, 0-100000 lux), twice a month at 10.00, 12.00, 14.00, 16.00 and 18.00h at a height of 1m from the floor of the three technology zones. Summarized for all buildings, the light level varies widely by buildings, by seasons, by hours of reporting and by technological zones with limit values between 1 and 9810 lux. In all barns the most intense was the light above the feed alleys, followed by stalls and manure alleys; by hours of reporting during the day the level of lighting above the three technological zones was higher at midday (12.00-14.00h) compared to morning (10.00h) and afternoon (18.00h). Buildings No.1 and No.2 with a smaller built-up area provide more intensive lighting over all technological zones throughout all seasons compared to building No.3 with bigger built-up area: from 7.34 to 13.8 times over stalls, from 3.22 to 5.62 times over manure alleys and from 2.79 to 8.00 times over feed alleys. In buildings No.1 and No.2 there were prerequisites at least 16 hours of day light (photoperiod) to be provided during summer, autumn and spring, while in the winter months up to 8.00am and after 6.00pm the used artificial lighting was with low intensity and cannot provide the recommended over 160 lux intensity of the light. In building No.3 during most of the day for all seasons, the level of lighting above stalls and manure alley where the animals stay the longest time, the lighting level was lower than 160 lux. The factors ‘building’, ‘season’ and ‘hour of the day’ had a statistically significant effect (P<0.05-0.001) on the level of lighting in the three technological zones in the studied buildings. Of the associated factors, only the combination ‘season*hour of reporting’ had no significant effect on the lighting in the zones above the stalls and manure alleys.

Investigation on some biotic factors in carp fish ponds

D. Terziyski1*, H. Kalcheva2, A. Ivanova1, R. Kalchev2

1Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture, 248 Vasil Levski, 4003 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
2Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 2 Gagarin, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 8 November 2015; accepted for publication 26 January 2016)

Abstract. Three years studies (2004 – 2006) on the main biotic parameters (chlorophyll-a, phytoplankton biomass, zooplankton biomass and bacterioplankton biomass) in carp fish ponds were carried out. The aim of the study was to investigate the biotic factors and the effect of manuring on the fish ponds. The relative changes in these factors in case of fertilization with manure 3000 kg.ha-1 or without fertilization were determined. The impact of fertilization as bottom-up melioration on some biotic factors was proven by means of paired non-parametric Wilcoxon test with following significant differences: higher levels of chlorophyll-a and higher phytoplankton biomass in fertilized ponds. Zooplankton biomass was higher in fertilized ponds, but the differences were statistically insignificant. Bacterioplankton biomass was higher in the fertilized ponds, which is an indication that the applied melioration does not lead to overload of organic matter in the ponds.


Loading of integrated fishponds with organic matter under different approaches of mule ducks (Anas platyrhynchos x Cairina moschata) feeding

The effect of the feeding regime of mule ducks on loading of fishponds with organic matter in integrated fish-cum-duck technology was studied at theInstitute of Fisheries and Aquaculture – Plovdiv. The stocking density of the ducklings was 340 pcs.ha-1. The coefficient of loading (Ì) was used for establishing the pond loading: where N is the mean number of ducks in the rotation; t – rotation length in days; W – average live weight of theducks for the growing period, kg; 96 g – the amount of the manure released for a day by one duck per kg of live weight ; P – pond surface area,ha; r – relative stay of the ducks in water out of the active time of days.Two regimes of feeding the mule ducks were studied. It was establishedthat when fed on a balanced mixture, the mule ducks spent the bigger part of the day on land, as a result of which during the period of the study(40 days) the manure inserted in the pond amounted to 74.7 kg.ha-1. Substituting 50 % of the mixture with wheat, maize or sunflower groats(preserving the energy and protein levels), led to prolonging the average length of stay of the mule ducks in the pond almost 8 times. Due to themore significant differences in the time spent in the pond during the last ten-day periods, the manure released into water increased by morethan 10 times, although the live weight in all the periods was lower compared to the first variant.

Loading of integrated fishponds with organic matter under different approaches of mule ducks (Anas platyrhynchos x Cairina moschata) feeding

L. Nikolova