Influence of foliar feeding of common wheat varieties on the nutritional value of the grain

A. Stoyanova1*, G. Ganchev2, V. Kuneva3

1Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Department of Morphology, Physiology and Animal nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 3Department of Mathematics and Informatics, Faculty of Economics, Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 29 June 2018; accepted for publication 3 September 2018)

Abstract. . Two years of polls from the field trials of the Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria were used for the purpose of the survey. In the period 2015-2016, two varieties of common wheat (Apolon and Bolonga), treated by leaf liquid fertilizers, imported alone and in combinations were tested under field conditions. Main fertilization with ammonium nitrate was done. The variants of the experiments were as follows: 1) Without fertilization (Control); 2) Ammonium nitrate (N140); 3) Lactifrost – l0.0 L/ha; 4) Lactifros + Lactofol base – 10.0 L/ha + 5.0 L/ha; 5) Lactofol base – 5.0 L/ha; 6) Wuxal Grano – 4.0 L/ha; 7) Wuxal Grano – 4.0 L/ha + 2.0 L/ha. It was found that crude protein content ranged from 136.90 to 144.63g/kg DM in the Apolon variety and from 129.98 to 145.12 g/kg DM in the Bologna variety. An increase in CP content was seen as a result of feeding with Lactifrost and Lactofol base, respectively, by 5.6% and 11.7% relative to the control. Treatment of common wheat with liquid leaf fertilizers, however, does not lead to improvements in energy (metabolizable energy, digestible energy, feed unit for milk, feed unit for growth) and protein digestible in (small) intestine nutrition. In both varieties there were many positive and negative correlations between the investigated parameters: CP, CFAT, CF, DEE, FUM, FUG, PDI, Dep, MEp, DEpg and MEpg; in ruminants the same positive correlations for both varieties are between CP and PDI (p<0.01) and negative – between CP and FUM (p<0.05), and between CFAT and PDI (p<0.05); in nonruminants negative correlations exist between CF and the energy values (DEp, MEp, DEpg and MEpg) only in Apolon variety.

Productivity of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown after various predecessors and nitrogen fertilization rates

M. Gerdzhikova*

Department of Plant Growing, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 12 December 2016; accepted for publication 20 February 2017)

Abstract. During the period 2008-2011 the influence of the predecessors wintering peas, spring peas, sunflower and common wheat and different levels of nitrogen fertilization: 0 (N0), 40 (N40), 80 (N80), 120 (N120) kg/ha after legumes and 0 (N0), 60 (N60), 120 (N120), 180 (N180) kg/ha after the other predecessors on the productivity of common wheat was studied on the experimental field of the Department of Plant Growing, Trakia University. It was found that with cultivation of common wheat without fertilization after legume predecessors higher yields by 9.4 % were obtained compared to the other predecessors. The highest yields were obtained at fertilization with the highest nitrogen rates: after legume predecessors 4069.8 kg/ha grain; after sunflower and wheat 3853.2 kg/ha of grain. The strongest influence on the productivity of common wheat had nitrogen fertilization as a factor with 79.80 %. The yield of wheat grain correlates very well with the level of nitrogen fertilization and can be determined approximately by regression equations based on the quantity of nitrogen as an independent variable.

Influence of organic fertilizers Aminobest and Greenfol on the initial stages of growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

М. Pashev1, D. Yakimov2, V. Budаeva3

Abstract. The use of liquid organic fertilizers which do not pollute the environment and also contribute to a more delicious and healthier food and sustainable yields in a distant period of time is essential. The aim of this research work is to carry out studies about the influence of organic liquid fertilizers Aminobest and Greenfol in the early stages of growth through different treatments of the seeds of wheat, variety Diamond. The seeds are processed by soaking for 3 hours in solutions of organic fertilizers. The experiment was performed in greenhouse conditions. Pre-sowing treatment by soaking the seed and a subsequent foliar application on the third leaf with a solution of liquid fertilizer Aminobest and Greenfol was applied. The influence of the liquid organic fertilizers Greenfol and Aminobest on the rate of growth of seedlings of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), variety Diamond was examined. It was established that by pre-sowing treatment by soaking the seed and a subsequent foliar application on the third leaf with a solution of liquid fertilizer, the length of the primary root and the stem of wheat, measured on the 8th and 22nd day after laying the seeds increase.


Drying of seeds from common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by using Silica gel for ex situ storage

P. Chamurlyisky, N. Tsenov, S. Stoyanova
Abstract. One of the most widely used methods for maintenance of the biodiversity of the cultural plant species is their preservation under ex situ conditions. This major approach is related to storage of accessions at organism level in genetic stock centers by reducing the metabolite activity of the seeds as a result of low moisture content and low temperature. Seed moisture is one of the main indices for the storage ability of seeds. When working with a small number of samples in long term storage collections, a suitable method for reduction of moisture is the use of desiccant Silica Gel. The aim of this study was to develop a practically applicable system for drying winter wheat seeds by using Silica Gel for the purposes of an ex situ working collection of common wheat, following the variations of moisture throughout the entire process of dehydration. Seeds from three contemporary cultivars of DAI were used, Aglika, Enola and Pryaspa, which were grown in 2012. The experiment was designed at three different volumes of grain:desiccant ratios: 1 part grain to 0.5 parts silica gel (1:0.5), 1 part grain to 1 part silica gel (1:1), and 1 part grain to 1.5 parts silica gel. Each cultivar was involved in the above design, in three replications for each variant. Moisture content in seeds was determined by a weight method. The first reading was done on the 30th day, the second and third – at 20 day intervals. Two-factor dispersion analysis and variation analysis were applied for statistical processing of the data with the help of the software XLSTAT Pro ver. 7.5.2.
The lowest moisture content at the end of the experiment was determined for cultivar Enola: 5.2 % at ratio 1:1.5 grain seeds/silica gel. It was found that at variant 1:1.5 seeds/silica gel the lowest moisture levels were reached and moisture reduction was the fastest. A practically applicable and economically efficient methodology was developed for drying according to which the variant 1:0.5 was the most suitable for the purposes of long-term storage of winter wheat.


Yield stability of contemporary Bulgarian winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) in Dobrudzha

P. Chamurliyski, N. Tsenov
Abstract. One of the main tasks of the contemporary breeding programs is developing of varieties characterized with high production potential and stability of grain yield under different growing environments. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the yield stability of contemporary bread wheat cultivars grown in five successive years of contrasting meteorological conditions. The trial was carried out at DAI during 2007 – 2011. The focus of investigation was on the grain yield from common winter wheat. The analysis of variances (ANOVA) undoubtedly revealed the significant interaction of the genotype with the environment. The parameters of stability were calculated and the final evaluation of each cultivar included its grain yield according to the method of Kang (1998). Cultivars Zlatitsa and Korona realized the highest production potential during the investigated period. Relatively highest grain yield stability was demonstrated by cultivars Slaveya, Zlatitsa, Iveta, Aglika, Bolyarka and Dragana. Cultivars with high quality genetic potential such as Iveta, Lazarka and Aglika possessed excellent combination of high and stable grain yield significantly higher than the standard cultivar Pryaspa which belongs to third group of grain quality.