Symbiotic effect on some microbiological species and physicochemical properties in milk in subclinical mastitis of dairy cows

I. Abdennebi1, C.R. Messai2, N. Ouchene3,5*, N.A. Ouchene-khelifi3,5, L. Ghallache4, K. Ait-Oudhia5,6,
T.M. Hamdi1, D. Khelef2

1Laboratory of Food Hygiene and Quality Insurance System, High National Veterinary School, Algiers, Algeria
2Animal Health and Production Laboratory, High National Veterinary School, Algiers, Algeria
3Institute of Veterinary Science, University Blida1, Street Soumaa BP270, 09000 Blida, Algeria
4Environment, Health and Animal Production Laboratory, Institute of Veterinary and Agronomic Sciences,
Batna, Algeria
5Laboratory of Biotechnologies related to animal reproduction, University Blida1, Street Soumaa BP270,
09000 Blida, Algeria
6High National Veterinary School, Algiers, Algeria

(Manuscript received 10 September 2020; accepted for publication 3 November 2020)

Abstract. Subclinical mastitis (SCM) is the most common form of mastitis and the greatest cause for concern in dairy cows. The overuse of antibiotics for the treatment of mastitis leads to the development of resistance, resulting in the use of symbiotics. The study was carried out between February and May 2017 at a pilot dairy cattle farm in the Tipaza region (north-central Algeria) aiming to investigate the effect of a symbiotic on SCM. California Mastitis test (CMT) was used to diagnose SCM in a total of 240 dairy cows. A number of 58/240 (24.16%) cows were found to have SCM. These mastitis cows were then divided into two lots; an experimental lot of 37 cows and a control lot of 21 cows. A symbiotic was administered to the experimental lot once a month for three months. Cell count, microbiological analysis and analysis of certain physicochemical parameters of the milk were applied before and after each administration of the symbiotic. The results revealed that the average somatic cells count (SCC) in cows from the control lot was higher than that of cows from the experimental lot throughout the study period (p<0.0001). Staphylococci were isolated from 51/58 (87.93%) of the mastitis cows, of which 21 (36.20%) were infected with Staphylococcus aureus and 30 (51.72%) with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from 36/58 (62.07%) of the mastitis cows, of which 21 (36.20%) were due to Escherichia coli strain and 15 (25.86%) to other strains of Enterobacteriaceae. After administration of the symbiotic, the prevalence of S. aureus and E. coli decreased significantly in the experimental lot compared to the control lot (p<0.001). The physicochemical characteristics of the milk were not altered by the administration of the symbiotic. All these results show that the symbiotic constitutes an adequate solution to replace antibiotics in the treatment of SCM.

Biotic and abiotic stress roles in drugs production through in vitro approaches in plants – a review

Bakrudeen Ali Ahmed1*, R. Arun Kumar2, Muneeb M. Musthafa3, Davindran Rajandram3,

Faiz M.M.T. Marikar4

 

1Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

2Center for Research and Development, Ponnaiyah Ramajayam Institute of Science and Technology,

PRIST Deemed University, Vallam, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India

3Faculty of Science, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur-50603, Malaysia

4General Sir, John Kotelawala, Defence University, Kandawala Estate, Ratmalana, Sri Lanka

 

(Manuscript received 10 January 2020; accepted for publication 27 April 2020)

 

Abstract. Plant metabolic engineering is a modern discipline that promises to create opportunities in pharmaceutical industries to produce and biomedicine. Over the long period natural and synthetic plant hormones have had tremendous implications in callus/cell culture /suspension/ for secondary metabolites production (SMs). Generally, SMs plays a vital fundamental role in protecting the plant from biotic and abiotic attacks to which it may be subjected. This review article focused on the relationship between various factors related to the drug production. In medicinal plants, in vitro studies, based on biotic factors such as fungal/endo-phytic fungal elicitors/microbe-derived exogenous elicitor yeast extract (YE) were cross checked  with the abiotic six factor groups, including auxins and cytokinins, gamma radiation, lights, temperature, carbon sources, photoperiods, precursor chemicals and plant metabolic enzymes. Moreover, key enzymes and gene networks can serve as a resource to selected potential targets for specific SMs production. This is the first review to describe the light factors needed for the SM production, which has favorable role for SMs. We envisage that the researcher can design how to modulate the stress factors in terms of drug improvement from medicinal plants.

Medicinal plants in Tended Nature Reserve „Atanasovsko ezero”

N. Grozeva, Tch. Miteva, N. Nedyalkova

Abstract. The diversity of medicinal plants in Tended Nature Reserve “Atanasovsko ezero” has been studied. A total of 102 species and 1 subspecies belonging to 82 genera have been established. The data is indicative of the relatively great diversity of medicinal plants in Tended Nature Reserve “Atanasovsko ezero”. Most of the medicinal plants belong to Magnoliophyta. The families Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Chenopodiaceae are represented by the greatest number of species and genera. A large number of antropophyte, melliferous and toxic plants has been registered. Five protected species and one subspecies were found: Anethum graveolens L.; Artemisia lerchiana Weber; Eryngium maritimum L.; Еuphorbia peplis L.; Orchis laxiflora ssp. еlegans (Heuffel) Soó; Samolus valerandii L. The populations of all registered medicinal plants are in good condition, especially those of perennial ruderal and weed plants. Certain reduction in the number of populations has been registered for Dictamnus albus L., Iris pumila L. and I. pseudacorus L. At this stage it is not necessary to implement additional measures for protection of medicinal species on the studied territory.

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Morphological and productive characteristics of Rhaponticum carthamoides Iljin

A. Dzhurmanski

Abstract. A three-year- old plantation of 200 pcs. of plants were analyzed and their biometric and economic characteristics were determined according to 19 indices. The observed population was highly heterozygous and it displayed important differences both in their basic biometric indicators (height, width, number and diameter of stems, number and size of leaves and inflorescences), and their economic indicators: yield roots, seeds and secondary autumn growth. Fresh root yield varied widely from 65 to 1185 g, 464 g per plant on average. In plants forming twice as heavy roots than the average there were the following characteristics – 82% of them formed a larger leaf lamina. The third year, 35% of the plants either didn’t form generative organs, or they were sterile. The seed yield of the third year was 9.08 kg/ha and it was 28% lower compared to the previous year; a significant degree of variation in the seed yield of a plant within 1.4 to 28.1 g indicated high heterozigosity of the population. In the standardization of seedlings, it was found that the biggest size group with root neck thickness of over 10 mm and forming several vegetative tips accounts for 26.8% of the seedlings. The three-year-old plants of this group gave an average of 540 g fresh roots from one plant, or 23% more than the next group. There were also 12 times more often high-yield plants with roots weighing over 900 g. The small size group of seedlings with root neck thickness of 5 mm should not be used to create plantations. In carrying out the selection in Rhaponticum carthamoides Iljin it is necessary to use only the biggest size seedling, to choose plants with large leaf lamina, and stem diameter of over 8 mm. as additional indicators.

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