Evaluation of fatty acid profile and naturalness of butter marketed in Bulgaria

N. Naydenova

Department of Animal husbandry – Ruminants and Dairy farming, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 5 June 2021; accepted for publication 30 August 2021)

Abstract. The predominant influence on the structural-mechanical characteristics (hardness, brittleness, etc.) and the chemical parameters (acidity, oxidation-reduction potential, etc.) of butter is exerted by its lipid composition. The aim of the study was to establish the fatty acid composition of some Bulgarian brands of butter and those imported from abroad, offered in the trade network of Bulgaria, in connection with their naturalness and health indicators. Five brands of butter produced in Bulgaria and imported from countries in the European Union were tested three times. The content of saturated fatty acids in the studied Bulgarian brands of butter varied from 66.16 to 75.15%, and for brands of butter imported from EU countries they varied in a significantly narrower range – from 67.51 to 72.49%. The amount of short-chain saturated fatty acids is higher for EU-imported butter brands. The data for the identification characteristics of all tested samples from the trade network of the country meet the requirements for naturalness of butter. The atherogenic index of butter varied from 2.56 to 3.26 for the imported brands of butter and from 2.41 to 3.70 for the Bulgarian ones, and the thrombogenic index from 1.49 to 2.36 for the imported brands, and from 1.44 to 2.17 for the Bulgarian ones, respectively.