Sowing characteristics of the durum wheat seeds (Triticum durum Desf.) by use of some antigraminaceous and combined herbicides

G. Delchev

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 31 Mai 2021; accepted for publication 13 December 2021)

Abstract. The research was conducted during 2018 – 2020 on pelvic vertisol soil type. Under investigation was Bulgarian durum wheat cultivar Predel (Triticum durum Desf.). A total of 18 variants were investigated: hand weeded control, 4 antigraminaceous herbicides – Imaspro 7.5 EB (fenoxaprop-ethyl) – 1 l/ha, Sword 240 EC (clodinafop-propargyl) – 250 ml/ha, Traxos 50 EC (pinoxaden + clodinafop-propargyl) – 1.20 l/ha, Axial 050 EC (pinoxaden) – 900 ml/ha and 13 combined herbicides – Axial one (pinoxaden + florasulam) – 1 l/ha, Zerrate (clodinafop-propargyl + piroxulam) – 250 g/ha, Palace 75 WG (piroxulam) – 250 g/ha, Corello duo 85 WG (florasulam + piroxulam) – 250 g/ha, Hussar max OD (mesosulfuron + iodosulfuron) – 1 l/ha, Pacifica expert (amidosulfuron + iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium + mesosulfuron-methyl) – 500 g/ha, Atlantis flex 20.25 WG (mesosulfuron-methyl + propoxycarbazone sodium) – 330 g/ha, Tolurex 500 SC (chlorotoluron) – 4 l/ha, Constell (diflufenican + chlorotoluron) – 4.5 l/ha, Battle delta (flufenacet + diflufenican) – 600 ml/ha, Eagle 75 WG (chlorosulfuron) – 20 g/ha, Prol aqua (pendimethalin) – 3 l/ha, Krum (prosulfocarb) – 5 l/ha. All of the antigraminaceous herbicides and foliar-applied combined herbicides were treated during tillering stage of durum wheat. Soil-applied combined herbicides were treated during after sowing before emergence period of durum wheat. Combined herbicides Tolurex and Constell decreased significantly germination energy and laboratory seed germination of durum wheat seeds. Length of coleoptile was decreased by influence of herbicides Tolurex and Constell. Lengths of primary roots are decreased by influence of herbicides Tolurex, Constell, Krum and Battle delta. The investigated 4 antigraminaceous and 13 combined herbicides did not prove influence on waste grain quantity. Application of combined herbicides Tolurex and Constell after sowing before emergence period led to obtaining the lowest grain yields of durum wheat. Soil-applied combined herbicide Eagle led to obtaining the highest grain yields.