Productivity and yield stability at late treatment of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) with antibroadleaved herbicides.

Gr. Delchev*, S. Angelova

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 5 July 2018; accepted for publication 1 February 2019)

Abstract. The aim of the study was to investigate the productivity and yield stability at durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) treated with antibroadleaved herbicides during 3-rd stem node stage. The experiment was conducted during 2012-2014 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation was Bulgarian durum wheat cultivar Victoria (Triticum durum var. valenciae). A total of 20 antibroadleaved herbicides were tested: Granstar 75 DF, Granstar super 50 SG, Ally max SG, Arat, Biathlon 4 D, Derby super WG, Mustang 306.25 SC, Weedmaster 646 CL, Sunsac, Secator OD, Logran 60 WG, Lintur 70 WG, Akurat 60 WG, Akurat extra WG, Eagle 75 DF, Herbaflex, Starane 250 EK, Sanafen, Dicotex 400 and Herby 675. All herbicides were treated in 3-rd stem node stage of durum wheat. It was found that during 3-rd stem node stage of durum wheat the antibroadleaved herbicides Arat, Biathlon, Derby super, Secator, Lintur, Akurat, Akurat extra and Starane can be used. These herbicides do not have a negative influence on grain yield. The most unstable yield is obtained after the treatment with herbicides Granstar, Granstar super, Ally max, Sunsac, Logran, Eagle, Herbaflex and Herby. Their selectivity to durum wheat is influenced most strongly by weather conditions during the vegetation period. From the viewpoint of technology for durum wheat growing, during 3-rd stem node stage technologically the most valuable are herbicides Derby super, Arat, Biathlon, Secator, Akurat, Akurat extra and Lintur. After the treatment with them high grain yield with high stability with relation to different years is obtained. The herbicides Granstar, Granstar super, Ally max, Sunsac, Weedmaster, Logran, Eagle, Herbaflex, Sanafen, Dicotex and Herby cannot be used during 3-rd stem node stage of durum wheat.

Effect of conservation agriculture on grain yield and income of maize under maize based cropping system in far western Nepal

H.K. Prasai1*, S.K. Sah2, A.K. Gautam3, A.P. Regmi3

1Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Regional Agricultural Research Station, 10801 Bhagetada, Dipayal, Doti, Nepal 2Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, 44209 Chitwan, Nepal
3Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Singh Durbar Plaza, 44617 Kathmandu, Nepal

(Manuscript received 1 September 2018; accepted for publication 25 October 2018)

Abstract. The adoption of Conservation agriculture (CA) contributes to sustainable production and its advantages include lower inputs and stable yields. This study was conducted in the research field of Regional Agricultural Research Station, Bhagetada, Dipayal, Doti during 2014 and 2015 to identify the effect of CA on grain yield and income of maize in Maize based cropping system. Both conservation and conventional agricultural (ConvA) practices were evaluated on two maize based cropping systems namely maize-wheat-mungbean (M-W-MB) and maize-lentil-mungbean (M-L-MB). For this purpose two maize varieties namely Raj Kumar and Arun-2 were used. The average productivity of maize under M-L-MB cropping system was 1.6% higher (5.75 t/ha) than M-W-MB cropping system (5.66 t/ha). The average grain yield of maize under CA was 16.7% higher (6.15 t/ha) than ConvA (5.27 t/ha). Rajkumar produced 43% higher average grain yield (6.73 t/ha) than Arun-2 variety (4.69 t/ha). The average net benefit was slightly higher (US$ 597.33/ha) under M-L-MB cropping system than M-W-MB cropping system (US$ 573.89/ha). Similarly, the average net benefit from CA was 102% higher (US$ 783.67/ha) than ConvA (US$ 386.79/ha). Rajkumar variety gave 127% higher average net benefit (US$ 813.49/ha) than Arun-2 (US$ 357.81/ha). The average benefit – cost (B:C) ratio of M-L-MB cropping system was slightly higher (1.72) than the average B:C ratio of M-W-MB cropping system (1.70). The average B:C ratio of CA was 42% higher (2.01) than ConvA (1.41). The average B:C ratio of Rajkumar variety was found 33% higher (1.95) than Arun-2 (1.46). The higher grain yield, net profit and B:C ratio were found in CA practices under M-L-MB cropping system and Rajkumar variety. This study suggests that hybrid maize planting and the adoption of M-L-MB cropping system should be used to increase grain yield and economic performance under CA practices.

Productivity and yield stability at late treatment of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) with antibroadleaved herbicides II. Influence at treatment during 2-nd stem node stage

Gr. Delchev*, M. Delcheva

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 17 May 2018; accepted for publication 16 October 2018)

Abstract. Theresearchwasconductedduring2012-2014onpellicvertisolsoiltype.InvestigatedwastheBulgariandurumwheatcultivarVictoria(Triticum durum var. valenciae). A total of 20 antibroadleaved herbicides were investigated: Granstar 75 DF, Granstar super 50 SG, Ally max SG, Arat, Biathlon 4 D, Derby super WG, Mustang 306.25 SC, Weedmaster 646 CL, Sunsac, Secator OD, Logran 60 WG, Lintur 70 WG, Akurat 60 WG, Akurat extra WG, Eagle 75 DF, Herbaflex, Starane 250 EK, Sanafen, Dicotex 400 and Herby 675. All herbicides were treated in 2-nd stem node stage of durum wheat. During 2-nd stem node stage of durum wheat the following antibroadleaved herbicides can be used: Arat, Biathlon, Derby super, Mustang, Secator, Lintur, Akurat, Akurat extra, Starane, Dicotex and Herby. These herbicides do not have a negative influence on grain yield. The most unstable treatments are with herbicides Granstar, Granstar super, Ally max, Sunsac, Logran, Eagle, Herbaflex and Herby. Their selectivity to durum wheat is influenced most strongly by weather conditions during the vegetation period. From the viewpoint of technology for durum wheat growing, during 2-nd stem node stage technologically the most valuable are the herbicides Derby super, Arat, Biathlon, Secator, Akurat, Akurat extra and Lintur. Their application provides high and stable grain yield during different years. The herbicides Granstar, Granstar super, Ally max, Sunsac, Weedmaster, Logran, Eagle and Herbaflex cannot be used during 2-nd stem node stage of durum wheat.

Productivity and yield stability at late treatment of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) with antibroadleaved herbicides. I. Influence at treatment during 1-st stem node stage

Gr. Delchev, D. Delchev

 

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

 

DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.043

(Manuscript received 25 May 2018; accepted for publication 20 July 2018)

 

Abstract. The research was conducted during 2012 – 2014 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation was Bulgarian durum wheat cultivar Victoria (Triticum durum var. valenciae). A total of 20 antibroadleaved herbicides were investigated: Granstar 75 DF, Granstar super 50 SG, Ally max SG, Arat, Biathlon 4 D, Derby super WG, Mustang 306.25 SC, Weedmaster 646 CL, Sunsac, Secator OD, Logran 60 WG, Lintur 70 WG, Akurat 60 WG, Akurat extra WG, Eagle 75 DF, Herbaflex, Starane 250 EK, Sanafen, Dicotex 400 and Herby 675. All herbicides were treated in 1-st stem node stage of durum wheat. During 1-st stem node stage of durum wheat the antibroadleaved herbicides Arat, Biathlon, Derby super, Mustang, Weedmaster, Secator, Lintur, Akurat, Akurat extra, Eagle, Starane, Sanafen, Dicotex and Herby can be used. These herbicides do not have a negative influence on grain yield. The most unstable are herbicides Granstar, Granstar super, Ally max, Sunsac, Logran, Herbaflex and Herby. Their selectivity to durum wheat is influenced most strongly by weather conditions during the vegetation period. From the viewpoint of technology for durum wheat growing, during 1-st stem node stage technologically the most valuable are herbicide Derby super, Arat, Biathlon, Secator, Akurat, Akurat extra and Lintur. They combine high grain yield with high stability in relation to different years. The herbicides Granstar, Granstar super, Ally max, Sunsac, Logran and Herbaflex cannot be used during 1-st stem node stage of durum wheat.

 

Knezha 560 – a new mid-late maize hybrid

  1. V. Valkova, N. Petrovska

 

Maize Research Institute, 5835 Knezha, Bulgaria

 

DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.036

(Manuscript received 14 May 2018; accepted for publication 29 June 2018)

 

Abstract. Тhe article presents a short characteristic of morphological, biological and economic qualities of a new maize hybrid Knezha (Kn) 560. The hybrid is a single cross, from mid-late group – FAO 500-599. It is recognized in 2017 by the Expert Commission of Executive Agency of Variety Testing, Field Inspection and Seed Control (EAVTFISC). At the points of ecological variety trails (EVT) and EAVTFISC it was compared with the American hybrid PR 35 P 12 and the Bulgarian hybrid – Knezha 509. During the testing period in the experimental field of the Maize Research Institute (MRI) – town of Knezha, the three-year average grain yield of hybrid Knezha 560 exceeded the standard PR 35 Р 12 hybrid by 19.3% and Knezha 509 hybrid by 37.3%. In the EAVTFISC system, the new hybrid exceeds the middle standard by 0.8%. The hybrid is stress-tolerant and resistant to economically important diseases and pests of maize. With this high-yielding and competitive maize hybrid, the group of mid-late maize hybrids offered on the Bulgarian seed market is being filled.

Agronomic performance of mutant lines of winter two-rowed barley

  1. Dyulgerova, D. Valcheva, N. Dyulgerov

 

Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 24 July 2017; accepted for publication 19 January 2018)

 

Abstract. The aim of this investigation was to study agronomic and morphological traits of winter two-rowed barley mutant lines in the M6 and M7 generations. Eight mutant lines, their parent – breeding line 244D and national standard cultivars – Obzor and Emon were evaluated in Complete Block Design with four replications. The research was conducted in the 2013/2014, 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 growing seasons in the experimental field of the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat, Southeastern Bulgaria. The characters studied included days to heading, plant height, lodging, peduncle length, spike length, awn length, spikelet number per spike, grain number per spike, grain weight per spike, 1000 grains weight, grain yield, protein content, extract content and grading (>2.5mm). Mutant lines M1/3, M1/5 and M1/217 produced a significantly greater grain yield than the parent and standard cultivars. The improvement of grain yield was associated with increasing of spike length and grain weight per spike. The studied mutant lines were characterized with a high yield ability combined with other valuable agronomic traits and can be used in a breeding program for developing winter malting  barley varieties.

Achievements and problems in the weed control in grain maize (Zea mays L.)

  1. G. Delchev, M. Georgiev

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of agriculture, 6000 Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 28 November 2016; accepted for publication 5 February 2018)

Abstract. Chemical control has emerged as the most efficient method of weed control. Herbicides combinations and tank mixtures of herbicides with adjuvants, fertilizers, growth regulators, fungicides, insecticides, are more effective than when they are applied alone in maize crops. Their combined use often leads to high synergistic effect on yield. There are maize hybrids resistant to imidazolinone for Clearfield technology, but they have not yet been introduced in Bulgaria. Data regarding herbicide for chemical control of perennial graminaceous weeds in maize crops are quite scarce even worldwide. The problem is the persistence of some herbicides used in the predecessors on succeeding crops, which is directly related to the weather conditions during their degradation. Most of the information in maize relates to conventional technology for weed control. There is not information about the new Duo system technology in grain maize and the hybrids used are resistant to cycloxydim. A serious problem is also the volunteers of the Clearfield and Express sun sunflower. They have resistance to herbicides different from that of conventional sunflower hybrids. There is no information yet in scientific literature about control of these volunteers.

Achievements and problems in the weed control in grain sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor Moench.)

Gr. Delchev*, M. Georgiev

1Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 28 November 2016; accepted for publication 21 March 2017)

Abstract. Chemical control has emerged as the most efficient method of weed control. Herbicides combinations and tank mixtures of herbicides with adjuvants, fertilizers, growth regulators, fungicides, insecticides are more effective than when applied alone on sorghum crops. Their combined use often leads to high synergistic effect on yield. The use of herbicide antidotes for the treatment of seeds in sorghum is a safe way to overcome its high sensitivity to many herbicides. Data regarding herbicide for chemical control of annual graminaceous weeds in sorghum crops are quite scarce even worldwide. Problem is the persistence of some herbicides used in the predecessors on succeeding crops, which is directly related to the weather conditions during their degradation. Most of the information on sorghum relates to the conventional technology for weed control. There is no information about the new Concep technology in grain sorghum. A serious problem is also the volunteers of the Clearfield and Express sun sunflower. They have resistance to herbicides different from that of conventional sunflower hybrids. There is no information yet in scientific literature on control of these volunteers.

Evaluation of high yielding mutants of Hordeum vulgare cultivar Izgrev

B. Dyulgerova*, N. Dyulgerov

Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 7 February 2017; accepted for publication publication 31 May 2017)

Abstract. Seeds of Hordeum vulgare L. cultivar Izgrev were treated with different concentrations of sodium azide to induce genetic variability for the selection of genotypes with improved traits. After passing through different stages of selection, 18 promising mutants were selected for further studies. Eighteen mutants and their parent and national standard cultivar Veslets were evaluated in Complete Block Design with four replications. The research was conducted in 2013 – 2014 and 2014 – 2015 growing seasons in the experimental field of the Institute of Agriculture Karnobat, Southeastern Bulgaria. The characters studied included days to heading, plant height, lodging, peduncle length, spike length, awn length, spikelet number per spike, grain number per spike, grain weight per spike, 1000 grains weight and grain yield. Wide variation among mutant lines was observed for different traits. Mutant lines M4/16 and M3/14 produced significantly greater grain yield than the parent and standard cultivar. Positive changes in lodging tolerance, grain number per spike, grain weight per spike, 1000 grains weight were also observed. This study showed positive effects in the use of mutation in inducing improvement for grain yield and some yield related traits.

Characterization of a new winter malting barley cultivar Ahil

B. Dyulgerova*, Dr. Vulchev, T. Popova

Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 7 February 2017; accepted for publication 30 May 2017)

Abstract. Ahil is a new winter malting barley cultivar developed by the method of experimental mutagenesis at the Institute of Agriculture, Karnobat, Bulgaria. Biological and agronomic characteristics of the cultivar were also investigated for several years and at the Executive Agency of Varietal Testing, Field Inspection and Seed Control trails in the period 2012 – 2013. Averaged for 6 locations in Bulgaria grain yield of the new cultivar was significantly higher than the yield of standard cultivars with about 5%. At the Institute of Agriculture grain yield was 17% higher than the average standard for the period of 5 years. The cultivar has high winter hardness, lodging resistance, resistance to powdery mildew and medium resistance to brown rust. Ahil has good malting quality.