Photosynthetic activity and productivity of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) affected by certain preparations and various terms of sowing

P. Nikolov1*, G. Delchev2

1Institute of Agriculture and Seed Science “Obrazcov Chiflik”, 7007 Ruse, Bulgaria
2Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 31 May 2021; accepted for publication 23 July 2021)

Abstract: In 2019-2020, in the experimental field of the Field Crops Institute, Chirpan a field experiment with durum wheat cultivar Predel (Triticum durum Desf.) was conducted. Three sowing dates were tested: Early sowing (05 – 10 October), Normal sowing (20-25 October – standard) and Late sowing (05-10 November). In early sowing, 2 retardants were studied: Cearon 480 SL – 1 l/ha and Medax top – 1 l/ha and 2 insecticides: Proteus 110 OD – 625 ml/ha and Mageos – 100 g/ha, as well as the mixtures between them. During late sowing, 2 stimulants were studied: Naturamin plus – 1.5 l/ha and Raiza mix – 750 ml/ha and 2 foliar liquid fertilizers: Mix for cereal SC – 1.5 l/ha and Trimax SC – 1.5 l/ha, as well as the mixtures between them. These preparations and fertilizers are applied after stage 3-4 leaves of durum wheat, in the so-called “Closure of crops”. In the case of early sowing variants, this stage occurs in autumn, and in the case of late sowing variants, the stage occurs in spring. In the early sowing of durum wheat, the leaf area, photosynthetic potential, biological and economic yield are the greatest in the combinations of retardants Cearon and Medax top with the insecticides Proteus and Mageos. In the late sowing of durum wheat, the leaf area, photosynthetic potential, biological and economic yield are the highest in the combinations of the stimulants Naturamin plus and Raiza mix with the leaf fertilizers Mix for cereals and Trimax. In these variants, the leaf area dies faster during the milk development stage. The net photosynthesis productivity in the combinations is lower than in the independent use of the respective preparations and fertilizers. The harvest index in the late and normal sowing variants is higher than in the early durum wheat sowing variants.

Influence of long-term fertilization and environments on test weight of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) grain

G. Panayotova1*, S. Kostadinova2, S. Stefanova-Dobreva3, A. Muhova3

1Department of Plant production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Department of Agrochemistry and Soil Science, Faculty of Agronomy, Agricutural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
3Field Crops Institute, 6200 Chirpan, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 6 September 2020; accepted for publication 26 February 2020)

Abstract. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of long-term nitrogen-phosphorus fertilization and meteorological conditions during the period 1990-2019 on test weight of durum wheat grain in Central South Bulgaria. The influence of nitrogen and phosphorus rates – 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg.ha-1, as well as combined NP fertilization in the same rates on durum wheat grain under conditions of stationary long-term fertilizing experiment in cotton-durum wheat crop rotation was studied. The analysis of the results showed that the test weight was below the standard requirements in eight of the studied years, and in 22 years the average test weight exceeded the requirements. The values in 17 years were over 80.0 kg. The test weight decreased by increasing the N rates above 80 kg and the lowest average value was seen at N160 – 79.4 kg. The Р application in rates from 40 tо 160 kg.ha-1 indicated a tendency to increase the test weight. Good values were realized by combining a moderate to high phosphorus rates Р80-160 with low N levels N40-80. Weather conditions during the 30-year period have a strong significant impact on the test weight of the grain.

Productivity and yield stability at late treatment of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) with antibroadleaved herbicides.

Gr. Delchev*, S. Angelova

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 5 July 2018; accepted for publication 1 February 2019)

Abstract. The aim of the study was to investigate the productivity and yield stability at durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) treated with antibroadleaved herbicides during 3-rd stem node stage. The experiment was conducted during 2012-2014 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation was Bulgarian durum wheat cultivar Victoria (Triticum durum var. valenciae). A total of 20 antibroadleaved herbicides were tested: Granstar 75 DF, Granstar super 50 SG, Ally max SG, Arat, Biathlon 4 D, Derby super WG, Mustang 306.25 SC, Weedmaster 646 CL, Sunsac, Secator OD, Logran 60 WG, Lintur 70 WG, Akurat 60 WG, Akurat extra WG, Eagle 75 DF, Herbaflex, Starane 250 EK, Sanafen, Dicotex 400 and Herby 675. All herbicides were treated in 3-rd stem node stage of durum wheat. It was found that during 3-rd stem node stage of durum wheat the antibroadleaved herbicides Arat, Biathlon, Derby super, Secator, Lintur, Akurat, Akurat extra and Starane can be used. These herbicides do not have a negative influence on grain yield. The most unstable yield is obtained after the treatment with herbicides Granstar, Granstar super, Ally max, Sunsac, Logran, Eagle, Herbaflex and Herby. Their selectivity to durum wheat is influenced most strongly by weather conditions during the vegetation period. From the viewpoint of technology for durum wheat growing, during 3-rd stem node stage technologically the most valuable are herbicides Derby super, Arat, Biathlon, Secator, Akurat, Akurat extra and Lintur. After the treatment with them high grain yield with high stability with relation to different years is obtained. The herbicides Granstar, Granstar super, Ally max, Sunsac, Weedmaster, Logran, Eagle, Herbaflex, Sanafen, Dicotex and Herby cannot be used during 3-rd stem node stage of durum wheat.

Productivity and yield stability at late treatment of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) with antibroadleaved herbicides II. Influence at treatment during 2-nd stem node stage

Gr. Delchev*, M. Delcheva

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 17 May 2018; accepted for publication 16 October 2018)

Abstract. Theresearchwasconductedduring2012-2014onpellicvertisolsoiltype.InvestigatedwastheBulgariandurumwheatcultivarVictoria(Triticum durum var. valenciae). A total of 20 antibroadleaved herbicides were investigated: Granstar 75 DF, Granstar super 50 SG, Ally max SG, Arat, Biathlon 4 D, Derby super WG, Mustang 306.25 SC, Weedmaster 646 CL, Sunsac, Secator OD, Logran 60 WG, Lintur 70 WG, Akurat 60 WG, Akurat extra WG, Eagle 75 DF, Herbaflex, Starane 250 EK, Sanafen, Dicotex 400 and Herby 675. All herbicides were treated in 2-nd stem node stage of durum wheat. During 2-nd stem node stage of durum wheat the following antibroadleaved herbicides can be used: Arat, Biathlon, Derby super, Mustang, Secator, Lintur, Akurat, Akurat extra, Starane, Dicotex and Herby. These herbicides do not have a negative influence on grain yield. The most unstable treatments are with herbicides Granstar, Granstar super, Ally max, Sunsac, Logran, Eagle, Herbaflex and Herby. Their selectivity to durum wheat is influenced most strongly by weather conditions during the vegetation period. From the viewpoint of technology for durum wheat growing, during 2-nd stem node stage technologically the most valuable are the herbicides Derby super, Arat, Biathlon, Secator, Akurat, Akurat extra and Lintur. Their application provides high and stable grain yield during different years. The herbicides Granstar, Granstar super, Ally max, Sunsac, Weedmaster, Logran, Eagle and Herbaflex cannot be used during 2-nd stem node stage of durum wheat.

Productivity and yield stability at late treatment of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) with antibroadleaved herbicides. I. Influence at treatment during 1-st stem node stage

Gr. Delchev, D. Delchev

 

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

 

DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.043

(Manuscript received 25 May 2018; accepted for publication 20 July 2018)

 

Abstract. The research was conducted during 2012 – 2014 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation was Bulgarian durum wheat cultivar Victoria (Triticum durum var. valenciae). A total of 20 antibroadleaved herbicides were investigated: Granstar 75 DF, Granstar super 50 SG, Ally max SG, Arat, Biathlon 4 D, Derby super WG, Mustang 306.25 SC, Weedmaster 646 CL, Sunsac, Secator OD, Logran 60 WG, Lintur 70 WG, Akurat 60 WG, Akurat extra WG, Eagle 75 DF, Herbaflex, Starane 250 EK, Sanafen, Dicotex 400 and Herby 675. All herbicides were treated in 1-st stem node stage of durum wheat. During 1-st stem node stage of durum wheat the antibroadleaved herbicides Arat, Biathlon, Derby super, Mustang, Weedmaster, Secator, Lintur, Akurat, Akurat extra, Eagle, Starane, Sanafen, Dicotex and Herby can be used. These herbicides do not have a negative influence on grain yield. The most unstable are herbicides Granstar, Granstar super, Ally max, Sunsac, Logran, Herbaflex and Herby. Their selectivity to durum wheat is influenced most strongly by weather conditions during the vegetation period. From the viewpoint of technology for durum wheat growing, during 1-st stem node stage technologically the most valuable are herbicide Derby super, Arat, Biathlon, Secator, Akurat, Akurat extra and Lintur. They combine high grain yield with high stability in relation to different years. The herbicides Granstar, Granstar super, Ally max, Sunsac, Logran and Herbaflex cannot be used during 1-st stem node stage of durum wheat.

 

Productivity of durum wheat cultivar Predel at nitrogen-phosphorous fertilization

L. Plescuta*

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 30 June 2017; accepted for publication 10 October 2017)

Abstract. The effect of nitrogen-phosphorus fertilization at nitrogen rates 0, 80, 120 and 160 kg.ha-1 and 0, 80 and 120 kg.ha-1 for phosphorus has been studied in durum wheat Predel cultivar, grown on leached vertisol soil type during the period 2012-2014 in the field of the Field Crops Institute – Chirpan. The results show that at alone nitrogen fertilization grain yield reaches 3,75 t.ha-1 at moderate N120, while at alone phosphorus fertilization the increase compared to the non- fertilized control (2,50 t.ha-1) is insignificant. At combined N120P120 the highest grain yield was obtained during the period – 4.50 t.ha-1, with 57.41% above the control. The harvest index of durum wheat grain variety Predel is 0.353 on average. Good HI results are formed at fertilization with P120 and N80P80.

 

Nitrogen uptake and expense in durum wheat depending on genotype and nitrogen fertilization

G. Panayotova1*, M. Almaliev2, S. Kostadinova2

1Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Department of Agrochemistry and Soil, Faculty of Agronomy, Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 29 September 2016; accepted for publication 30 January 2017)

Abstract. Nitrogen uptake and expense of durum wheat were studied under the conditions of fertilized field experiment on soil type Pellic vertisol. The seven genotypes – Progress, Vazhod, Victoria, Predel, Deana, Zvezdica and Elbrus selected at the Institute of Field Crops – Chirpan, Bulgaria, were grown in two field crops rotation of cotton and durum wheat under rainfed conditions for a period of three vegetations in years 2011-2013. The spring treatments of nitrogen as NH4NO3 were as follows: N0, N60, N120 and N180. The total N uptake in the above ground biomass of durum wheat increased with the amount of applied nitrogen and during climatically favorable years reached 220 kg N.ha-1. A tendency was found that the new genotypes uptook more N, compared to varieties Progress and Vazhod. The N expense of the new cultivars Predel and Zvezdica showed the highest amount of N per 1 ton of grain, 40.7 and 41.1 kg, respectively. Strong positive correlation was found between N fertilization and N uptake and expense for 1 ton of grain. The regression model indicated that N uptake with the grain and straw and N expense depending on N fertilization occurred with delay. With N fertilization of durum wheat at rates of up to 180 kg N.ha-1 each kilogram of applied N fertilizer increased the average expected N uptake with 7 kg.ha-1 and N expense with 0.66 kg.ton-1 grain.

Strategies for durum wheat fertilization

L. Plescuta, G. Panayotova*

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 11 November 2015; accepted for publication 19 May 2016)

Abstract. Durum wheat (Tr. durum Desf.) ranks second in the world cereal production after common wheat. It differs from the other species with its high grain
protein content, especially with gluten quality, which makes it suitable for producing spaghetti, macaroni, semolina flour and other products for the food industry. The purpose of this review was to summarize the results obtained in Bulgaria and in the world on the impact of mineral fertilization on yield and quality of durum wheat. All authors confirm that a significant increase of the grain yield in the last decades was achieved by both using new varieties and through optimal fertilization. Nitrogen as a nutrient is of great importance for wheat productivity. Nitrogen fertilization leads to stronger increase of leaf area, dry matter
accumulation, content of protein and gluten. Accumulated nitrogen and phosphorus depend mainly on the formed dry matter. At low nitrogen rates yield
increased at higher phosphorus level. Suppressant effect of high nitrogen and phosphorus rates on growth and development is emphasized in richer soil. A
number of authors have found genotypic specificity regarding grain yield in dependence on the level of fertilization. Problems of genetically determined and
improved grain quality under different durum wheat varieties are the subject of extensive research. The opinions of all authors are one-way for the positive
influence of fertilization and in particular nitrogen on the technological quality parameters – protein content, wet and dry gluten, vitreoussness, carotenoids
pigment, although the values vary significantly. The influence of fertilization is insignificant on the test weight.

odbutton6

Partial factor productivity of nitrogen fertilizer on grain and grain protein yield of durum wheat cultivars

G. Panayotova1*, S. Kostadinova2

1Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Department of Agrochemistry and Soil Science, Faculty of Agronomy, Agricultural University, 12 Mendeleev, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 19 January 2016; accepted for publication 2 February 2016)

Abstract. This study was conducted at the Field Crops Institute in Chirpan, Bulgaria, on Pellic vertisols soil type under non-irrigated conditions in the period of 2011 –2013. Tests were made on the effect of nitrogen fertilization at rates of 0; 60; 120 and 180 kgN/ha on seven durum wheat cultivars. The cultivar response was studied regarding the yield produced out of a unit of applied nutrient. It was found that the partial nitrogen productivity of grain and protein decreased by increasing the applied amounts of nitrogen fertilizer into the soil. The rate of N60 yielded the highest average partial productivity of nitrogen (69.8 kg/kg). The Elbrus and Deana cultivars had the highest partial nitrogen productivity of grain (47 –50 kg N/kg). The Elbrus cultivar manifested a tendency for the highest efficiency in forming the grain protein yield (7.2 kg N/kg) out of a unit of applied nitrogen fertilizer. The partial nitrogen productivity increased in favourable temperature and moisture weather conditions during wheat vegetation.

odbutton6

Study of factors affecting sporophytic development of isolated durum wheat microspores

V. Bozhanova1*, Horst Lorz

1Field Crops Institute, 6200 Chirpan, Bulgaria
2Biocenter Klein-Flottbek, AMP II, University of Hamburg, D-22609 Hamburg, Germany

Abstract. A microspore culture technique is used to produce homozygous lines of agronomic interest in a single generation. Several factors affecting the efficiency of in vitro sporophytic development of durum wheat microspores such as genotype, stress preatreatment, density and co-cultivation of isolated microspore and induction medium were studied in order to develop a protocol for dihaploid plants production. Strong genotype dependence in in vitro response and callus/embryoid capacity was observed. Cultivated microspores developed into macrostructures only after cold pretreatment of the collected spikes at +4°C for 4 weeks. The best results were achieved at density 10000 microspores/mlonthemod. Chu Medium (Chu et al., 1990) + 0.5mg/lBAP + 0.5mg/l2,4D + 90g/l maltosa with ovaries co-cultivation. A lot of macrostructures developed to embryoids, but only a few produced poorly-developed shoots–most of them were albinos.

odbutton6