Isolation of Lactobacillus species from fermented Parkia biglobosa seed and screening for their probiotic activity

K. Kuti1, I.M. Hussaini1*, A. Usman2, A. Isa1

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 24 December 2020; accepted for publication 10 May 2021)

Abstract. Food fermentation has been a tradition for decades due to its immense benefits. Lactic acid bacteria are known to possess probiotic potential due to various chemical antimicrobial substances they produce. This research was aimed at isolating Lactobacillus spp. from locally fermented locust beans and screening the isolates for their probiotic potential. A total of 20 samples of fermented locust beans (P. biglobosa) were collected and processed. The samples were inoculated onto de-Mann Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) media and incubated anaerobically. The isolates with characteristic colonial morphology of Lactobacillus sp. were characterized using Gram staining and biochemical tests. Lactobacillus spp. isolates were screened in-vitro for probiotic potential using the following parameters, tolerance of low pH, bile tolerance and antimicrobial activity. Four isolates of Lactobacillus species consisting of Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum were isolated from different fermented locust beans. All isolates showed tolerance to low pH and bile concentration of 3.04 and 0.3%, respectively. The Lactobacillus species isolates showed varying antibacterial activity against all test bacteria with isolate S06 (L. plantarum) showing the highest degree of antibacterial activity. In conclusion, the Lactobacillus species isolated from fermented locust beans can serve as probiotic candidate.

 

The use of propolis as an antimicrobial in livestock – an overview

S. Manav1*, M. Yilmaz1, H. Baytekin2, K. Çelik2, A. Çağli1
1Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Adnan Menderes University Aydin, Turkey
2Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale, Turkey

(Manuscript received 17 October 2019; accepted for publication 22 April 2020)

Abstract. The purpose of the present study was to review scientific reports on propolis used in livestock, to analyze them and to make appropriate summaries and conclusions. Propolis is a natural resinous substance collected by honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) from different plant parts such as buds, branches, leaves and exudates. Propolis is a known source of polyphenols and the flavonoids which have been widely studied as biochemical markers for botanical origin and to explain their antioxidant capacity as a key factor in chemoprevention. Antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer biological activities of propolis are known. Propolis has been used as a remedy in traditional medicine systems all over the world, mainly to treat wounds, burns, sore throat and stomach ulcer, etc. Modern science has confirmed the antimicrobial and antiviral action of propolis and has discovered numerous other beneficial pharmacological properties of bee glue: immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, antitumor, and many others. For this reason, a significant number of products containing propolis have been developed and commercialized: medical devices, over-the-counter preparations, health foods and beverages, cosmetics. Recently, studies on the effects of propolis on animal husbandry and animal health have increased due to many issues, such as organic animal breeding, feeding or treatment methods, reducing the use of antibiotics. One of these areas is the use of propolis to improve the growth performance and productivity of the livestock. Propolis has been determined to have antibacterial and antiviral effects in humans and animals.

Antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of fifteen Bulgarian plants

A. Solak, S. Dyankova

Institute of Cryobiology and Food Technologies, 53 Cherni Vrah Str., 1407 Sofia, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 1 September 2018; accepted for publication 16 January 2019)

Abstract. Analyses were performed of the antimicrobial activity of 15 herbs and spices (lemongrass, sour cherry, horseradish, ginger, St. John’s wort, common centaury, fig, clove, rose geranium, dill, rosemary, oregano, savory, smoketree and wild thyme) widely spread and used in Bulgaria and of some combinations thereof by the agar disk diffusion method. Total phenol content was the highest in the smoketree extract (43.80±1.50 GAE/ml), followed by rosemary (27.80±1.20 GAE/ml), clove (25.17±0.26 GAE/ml), wild thyme (24.83±1.20 GAE/ml), and oregano (23.50±2.00 GAE/ml) extracts. It was established that ethanol extracts of many tested plants showed inhibitory action against S. aureus and E. coli. The most potent effect was observed with extracts of St. John’s wort, smoketree and clove. With combination of plant extracts, very good results were demonstrated in mixtures of St. John’s wort with wild thyme, with savory and with clove. The said extracts may be used as active constituents in biopolymer matrices for development of functional antimicrobial films needed for food and pharmaceutical industries.

Antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus against pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms: A review

T. Dinev1*, G. Beev1, S. Denev1, D. Dermendzhieva2, M. Tzanova1, E. Valkova1

1Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Physics, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria 2Department of Applied Ecology and Animal Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 23 November 2016; accepted for publication 17 February 2017)

Abstract. The purpose of this review is to summarize the information regarding the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus, an important species of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria are constituents of many beneficent for the consumer’s health food products. They are considered potentially promising in the strategy to combat infections and prevent the growth of spoilage microorganisms, and also have antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic properties, improve the lactose metabolism, stimulate the immune system, etc. In the resent years Lactobacillus acidophilus is considered the main probiotic species in the intestinal tract of healthy humans and is widely used in functional dairy foods. It produces a variety of metabolic productswithantimicrobialproperties,includingorganicacidsandbacteriocins,suchaslactacinsBandF,acidophilin,acidocin,acidophilucin, acidophilicin, which are active against many pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms – Escherichia coli (including Escherichi coli 0157:H7), Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae, Helicobacter pylori, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Shigella, Bacillus, Clostridium, Mucor, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Trichoderma and Candida spp., etc. Because of the above mentioned reasons Lactobacillus acidophilus could be used as an alternative therapeutic agent against infections caused by susceptible microorganisms. On the other hand Lactobacillus acidophilus based antimicrobial products (mainly bacteriocins and pure cultures) could also be applied to food products to prevent the growth of spoilage microorganisms and food-borne pathogens. To better understand the mode of action and the spectrum of antifungal activity more clinical and laboratory studies of different Lactobacillus acidophilus strains are required.