Main parameters of essential oil of two species from genus Pelargonium, cultivated in laboratory conditions

V. Badzhelova*

Institute of Roses, Essential and Medical Cultures, 6100 Kazanlak, Bulgaria

Manuscript received 24 July 2020; accepted for publication 20 January 2021

Abstract. The objective of this study is to determine the quantity and parameters of the obtained essential oil of two species from genus Pelargonium (Pelargonium graveolens L’Her. and Pelargonium radens H.E.Moor) in Bulgaria. This research was conducted using the microdistillation method and gas chromatography. As a result significant difference in the quantity of obtained essential oils has been found and the number of the main components and the ratio of the dominant ingredients have been determined. In general, they represent the main part of the oils – from 45.23 % in Pelargonium radens to 47.60 % in Pelargonium graveolens, respectively. The highest is the content of citronellol+nerol in both species, 38.88 % for Pelargonium radens and 37.97 % for Pelargonium graveolens.

Ontogenetic and diurnal variations of essential oil content of Hypericum montbretii Spach, cultivated in Kazdağı (Edremit/Balıkesir), Turkey

  1. Paşa1, E. Esendal2, T. Kiliç3


1Department of Plant and Animal Production, Altinoluk Vocational School, Balikesir University, Medicinal and Aromatical Plants Programme, Altinoluk, Edremit, Balikesir, Turkey

2Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Namik Kemal University, Tekirdağ, Turkey

3Faculty of Necatibey Education, Balikesir University, Balikesir, Turkey


DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.050

(Manuscript received 16 April 2018; accepted for publication 8 July 2018)


Abstract. This research was carried out to determine the Hypericum montbretii Spach types essential oil content and composition, and its diurnal variations (9.00 am, 12.00 am and 16.00 pm) during the growing season of 2012. The plant was cultivated in the area of Mount Ida (Balikesir-Edremit), Turkey. The oil composition was determined with GC-MS. During the plant developmental stages the highest quantity of essential oil content (0.30-0.39%) was found at the full plant flowering stage and the lowest one at fresh fruiting stage (0.03-0.04%). Diurnal fluctuation in essential oils of whole plant was also observed – higher were the levels at noon (12.00 am) – 0.04-0.39% compared to the morning (9.00 am) and in the afternoon (16.00 pm). The oils consisted mainly of: at the vegetative stage – germacrene-D (6.9-11.7 %), gamma-Gurjunene (6.1-11.6%), 2-methyl octane (3.8-4.9%), δ-cadinol (2.7-4.8%) and phytol (2.9-4.5%); at the flowering stage – α-pinene (26.4-28.0%), undecane (14.1-16.0%), β-pinene (12.8-14.3%), delta-cadinene (6.8-8.0%) and caryophyllene (4.9-6.0%); at the fresh fruiting stage – amorphene (6.8-8.2%), β- caryophyllene (4.1-5.3%), delta-cadinene (5.0-5.5%) and α-cadinene (4.3-6.1%).


Influence of the temperature for distillation on the yield and quality of the Rosa alba L. essential oil

A. Dobreva*

Institute for Roses and Medicinal Plants, 49 Osvobojdenie, 6100 Kazanlak, Bulgaria

Abstract. Applying the method of distillation, the influence of different temperatures at the outlet of the cooler when processing Rosa alba is traced. It has been found that the extraction temperature rise leads to an increase of the yield by 10%, but losses of essential oil components up to 33% are detected. Gas chromatography assay revealsthattemperaturerateat24÷28oC keepsthemaximumoftheterpenealcohol citronellol+nerolandgeraniol(13.52%and15.4 %, respectively), so this temperature level can be recommended.


Comparative GC/MS analysis of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) inflorescence and essential oil volatiles

T. Zagorcheva, S. Stanev, K. Rusanov, I. Atanassov
Abstract. The composition of lavender inflorescence volatiles and distilled essential oils is significantly influenced by a number of factors, which makes it difficult to perform comparative analysis for larger lavender genetic resource collections and segregating populations. In the present study we test a simple procedure for GC/MS analysis of inflorescence volatiles, including frozen inflorescence sample storage, milling and hexane extraction of volatiles. A comparative GC/MS analysis of volatiles extracted from inflorescence samples and present in the distilled lavender oils derived from single bushes of seven Bulgarian lavender cultivars was carried out. The GC/MS analysis identified a total of 32 individual volatiles including all 11 volatiles included in the lavender ISO Standard 3515. The analysis of three parallel hexane extracts from the same inflorescence samples showed good reproducibility of the determined relative abundances of the analyzed volatiles. The relation of the GC/MS data on inflorescence volatiles with the composition of the distilled lavender essential oils was evaluated through analysis of the volatile recovery rates for the analyzed cultivars. The performed ANOVA test of the variances of the calculated recovery rates of individual volatiles showed that they are significantly influenced by the studied cultivars. The possibilities for application of the applied extraction procedure and comparative analysis of flower and inflorescence volatile compositions for large sets of lavender accessions and segregating populations are discussed.


Content and composition of the essential oil of Rosa alba L. during flower development

A. Dobreva, M. Gerdzhikova
Abstract. In 2010 the content and composition of the essential oil from Rosa alba L. in the different phases of the development of blossom is examined. Quantitative and qualitative changes of the essential oil are traced. Flowers from the population of white rose in 6 phases were investigated. The study was conducted at the Institute of roses and essential oil plants Kazanlak. It was found that optimum for the quantity and quality of the essential oil is not exactly at one time, but there is a correlation between the two indicators. The maximum content of essential oil is in phase IV – in semi-opened petals (in %). Optimal composition was recorded in (IV) and (V) phase, where the fundamental terpene alcohols: citronelol + nerol and geraniol are within limits, respectively 21,33 ÷ 22,19% and 8,11 ÷ 8,02% and the values of the ratio of terpene alcohols/hydrocarbons are the largest. White rose must be picked in semi-opened and opened flowers stage. After detachment of flowers processes of biosynthesis in the tissues continue and in storage both phases are matched. Thus optimal conditions for accumulation of maximum quantities of quality essential oil are created.


Accumulation dynamic of Ruta graveolens L. essential oil

A. Dzhurmanski, G. Zhekova, D. Angelova
Abstract. In the vegetation of rue the content of essential oil in fresh leaves herb doesn’t change and it maintains constant value of 0.1%. However, there are significant changes in content of essential oil of the inflorescence in order of 4-5 times with the lowest values 0.07 -0.1% in stage beginning of blossoming and the highest 0.26-0.49% in stage wax ripeness. Important changes in content of essential oil occurred after the drug drying – it increased to 4-5 times in leaves and inflorescence gathered in stage full blossoming, but in wax ripeness with 2.8 times. The essential oil composition has presented that the main ingredient 2- undecanone increased slightly from 62% in stage full blossoming to 70-73% in stage wax ripeness. In same time 2 – nonanone decreased from 21% to 14%. In some samples gathered in stage wax ripeness has been observed increasing of 2-nonanona to 21%.


Gas-chromatography and organoleptic analysis of the essential oil of Agastache foeniculum

Through distillation in a Clevenger apparatus, IRAP has obtained essential oils of Agastache foeniculum leaves and blossoms. The gaschromatography and organoleptic analysis have identified three types of oil: anethole, sweet menthol, and menthol. The anethole oil has the least number of components and contains around 90% of methylhavicol, its aroma being typically anethole with some additional spicy notes. The other two types of oils have similar structures of the main components, with emerging menthofuran, pulegon, and increasing limonene. The main differences of the sweet menthol and the menthol are in the ratio of their components. With the menthol the smell is sharper and fresh, with green, grassy notes, whereas with the sweet menthol it is warmer, and flavoured with additional notes.

Gas-chromatography and organoleptic analysis of the essential oil of Agastache foeniculum

G. Zhekova, A. Dzhurmanski, A. Dobreva

Daily dynamics of the essential oils of Rosa damascena Mill. and Rosa alba L.

The dynamics of the essential oils of Rosa damascena Mill. and Rosa alba L. within a day period has been measured. It has been found that the two genotypes have the same rhythm in the release of volatile emissions. In the context of meteorological conditions the maximum of oil of the pink rose was reached at 8 o’clock (0.275 %), and that of the white rose – at 12 o’clock (0.216%). The quality and quantity changes in oil run parallel. The white rose has the potential to synthesize a high percentage of terpene alcohols – up to 43.97% (compared to 42.48% for the pink rose), but is more unstable in this potential.

Daily dynamics of the essential oils of Rosa damascena Mill. and Rosa alba L.

A. Dobreva, N. Kovacheva