Slaughter traits of Pharaoh Japanese quails

А. Genchev1, H. Lukanov1*, I. Penchev2


1Department of Animal Science – monogastric and other animals, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

2Department of Morphology, Physiology and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria


(Manuscript received 29 November 2017; accepted for publication 23 January 2018)


Abstract. Slaughter traits and possibilities for production of manually deboned meat were investigated in Japanese quails. The study was conducted at the Poultry breeding unit of the Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University – Stara Zagora. Slaughter yield and relative shares of the different cuts with bones and deboned breast and thigh meat were determined in 35-day-old Pharaoh Japanese quails. It was found out that the grill percentage (carcass without skin and giblets) was 58-64.5% of live weight. Breast with bone comprised 36.5-49.9% of grill weight, and thighs: 23.2-32.4%. From one quail, about 75.6-110 g deboned breast and thigh meat could be produced, e.g. 50-67% of grill weight. Breast meat yield was 47-72 g from one bird equal to 31.2-42.8% of grill weight. At 35 days of age, abdominal fat percentage was relatively low (0.8% of grill weight) with bird-to-bird variation of 0.12 and 2.1%. It could be concluded that Japanese quails are a promising species that could be marketed both as whole-body carcass (grill) or as manually deboned cuts (breast with bone and thighs). The ratio of deboned meat and bones plus remaining muscle tissue was 5.9 and 4.5 for breast and thighs, respectively.

Effects of salt-curing on physicochemical and technological properties of Japanese quail breast meat

S. Ribarski1*, H. Lukanov2, I. Penchev3, A. Genchev2, E. Lyutskanova2

1Department of Morphology, Physiology and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
3Department of Pharmacology, Animal Physiology and Physiological Chemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

Abstract. The purpose of the study was to establish the physico-chemical and technological properties of salt-cured breast meat from Japanese quails. It was found out that the most dramatic changes occurred during the first 4 h after the slaughter. During that period, the meat temperature decreased almost linearly from 39.8 to 10°С. The values of рН declines between post slaughter min 30 and hour 4 from 6.0 to 5.59 (Р<0,001). The curing of meat with 3% or 1.7% NaCl solutions did not have any effect on water holding capacity. After defrosting of frozen salt-cured meat, the water holding capacity was considerably improved (11 – 12.4%), consequently to loss of water. Japanese quail breast meat cured in salt solutions increased its weight by 7.7 – 8.4% on the average. After cooking, salted breast meat lost about 19 – 25% of its weight. During the first 24 h after the slaughter, L*a*b* values of m. Pectoralis increased. Within this period, lightness increased almost linearly from 41.28 to 45.51 at an increment ΔL * during the first post slaughter half an hour of 5.38 (Р<0.01) and ΔL* of 5.21 between min 30 and hour 4 (Р<0.05). Most substantial changes occurred in colour coordinates а* and b* between the 4th and 24th post slaughter hours, when they increased by 16.5 to 19.7%. Salt-curing increased significantly the values of L* and b*. The a* value was reduced (Р<0.001). The analysis of L*a*b* values of salt-cured breast meat from Japanese quails did not take into consideration the effect of salt solution concentration. The meat colour index (MCI) however demonstrated that salt-curing resulted in lightening of meat samples with influence of salt solution concentration. The curing of m. Pectoralis with 3% NaCl increased the colour index by 19.5% (Р<0.001), while curing in 1.7% NaCl resulted in considerably lighter meat – 58.6% (P<0.01).


Egg Production Potential of Manchurian Golden Quail Breeders

A. Genchev

Abstract. According to its weight traits, the population of Manchurian Golden quails bred at the Department of Poultry Science at Trakia University can be referred to the heavy all-purpose type of Japanese quails with an average live weight of 259.7–273.1 g of females and 214.3–230.3 g of males. Under optimal temperature conditions, the females of the examined population ate, on average, 42–45.2 g of feed per day, which comprised 16.9–17.3% of their live weight during the most active period of laying. The average intensity of egg-laying during the control period was 80.95%, with 78.96% of all laid eggs being fit for incubation. In absolute terms, this accounted for 168.55 breeding eggs per layer hen. The percentage of culled eggs, excluding the first production month, varied between 0.98–2.2% with a noticeable tendency towards a slight increase after the third production month. The mean egg mass varied between 12.37–13.45 g, with the average egg mass per layer hen for the 7-month control period being 1986.69 g, equal to 7.65 times the average weight of layers. The feed conversion ratio per kg egg mass for the different generations ranged within 3.45–5.05 kg per kg of egg mass, with the highest values observed during the phase of the flock’s peak egg production – 3.626±0.111. The hatchability of the incubation eggs was high, relatively stable, at levels of 78–80.87%. The percentage of vital quail hatchlings comprised 95.6–98.2% of all hatched birds. Of all culled incubation eggs, the highest share was that of dead embryos during the final incubation stage (15th–18th day) with higher percentages during the beginning of egg production (16.3%).


Effect of age upon the reproductive performance of Japanese quails

The present study was carried out to monitor the reproductive traits of Japanese quail breeds reared in Bulgaria. The quail breeds kept at the Poultry Breeding Section at Trakia University: Pharaoh and Manchurian Golden, were used. Breeder flocks consisted of 8 female and 3 male birds. The eggs from each
breed were collected for three consecutive days in the middle of every production month. The incubation was performed under standard conditions in a smallscale
industrial incubator (Victoria-560). For the entire experimental period, 3902 Pharaoh and 3617 Manchurian Golden quail eggs were incubated. The
average percentage of hatched vital quails during the 7-month experimental period was 75.70% in the Pharaoh and 75.97% in the Manchurian Golden breed.
The incubation waste in both breeds consisted mainly of infertile eggs and late embryonic deaths – 18.66% and 18.52% of incubated Pharaoh and Manchurian
Golden eggs, respectively. During the first production month, the hatchability of incubated eggs was statistically significantly lower (P<0.001 in Pharaoh and
P<0.01 in Manchurian Golden quails) mostly due to the late embryonic deaths.

Effect of age upon the reproductive performance of Japanese quails

А. Genchev