Strategies for durum wheat fertilization

L. Plescuta, G. Panayotova*

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 11 November 2015; accepted for publication 19 May 2016)

Abstract. Durum wheat (Tr. durum Desf.) ranks second in the world cereal production after common wheat. It differs from the other species with its high grain
protein content, especially with gluten quality, which makes it suitable for producing spaghetti, macaroni, semolina flour and other products for the food industry. The purpose of this review was to summarize the results obtained in Bulgaria and in the world on the impact of mineral fertilization on yield and quality of durum wheat. All authors confirm that a significant increase of the grain yield in the last decades was achieved by both using new varieties and through optimal fertilization. Nitrogen as a nutrient is of great importance for wheat productivity. Nitrogen fertilization leads to stronger increase of leaf area, dry matter
accumulation, content of protein and gluten. Accumulated nitrogen and phosphorus depend mainly on the formed dry matter. At low nitrogen rates yield
increased at higher phosphorus level. Suppressant effect of high nitrogen and phosphorus rates on growth and development is emphasized in richer soil. A
number of authors have found genotypic specificity regarding grain yield in dependence on the level of fertilization. Problems of genetically determined and
improved grain quality under different durum wheat varieties are the subject of extensive research. The opinions of all authors are one-way for the positive
influence of fertilization and in particular nitrogen on the technological quality parameters – protein content, wet and dry gluten, vitreoussness, carotenoids
pigment, although the values vary significantly. The influence of fertilization is insignificant on the test weight.