Strategies for durum wheat fertilization

L. Plescuta, G. Panayotova*

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 11 November 2015; accepted for publication 19 May 2016)

Abstract. Durum wheat (Tr. durum Desf.) ranks second in the world cereal production after common wheat. It differs from the other species with its high grain
protein content, especially with gluten quality, which makes it suitable for producing spaghetti, macaroni, semolina flour and other products for the food industry. The purpose of this review was to summarize the results obtained in Bulgaria and in the world on the impact of mineral fertilization on yield and quality of durum wheat. All authors confirm that a significant increase of the grain yield in the last decades was achieved by both using new varieties and through optimal fertilization. Nitrogen as a nutrient is of great importance for wheat productivity. Nitrogen fertilization leads to stronger increase of leaf area, dry matter
accumulation, content of protein and gluten. Accumulated nitrogen and phosphorus depend mainly on the formed dry matter. At low nitrogen rates yield
increased at higher phosphorus level. Suppressant effect of high nitrogen and phosphorus rates on growth and development is emphasized in richer soil. A
number of authors have found genotypic specificity regarding grain yield in dependence on the level of fertilization. Problems of genetically determined and
improved grain quality under different durum wheat varieties are the subject of extensive research. The opinions of all authors are one-way for the positive
influence of fertilization and in particular nitrogen on the technological quality parameters – protein content, wet and dry gluten, vitreoussness, carotenoids
pigment, although the values vary significantly. The influence of fertilization is insignificant on the test weight.


Agroecological assessment of wastewater from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant by physico-chemical parameters

G. Kostadinova*, D. Dermendzhieva, G. Petkov, I. Taneva

Department of Applied Ecology and Animal Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Вulgaria

Abstract. The purpose of this study was to investigate and assess the wastewater quality in two monitoring points, at input and at output, of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (MWWTP), Stara Zagora, Bulgaria, for a period 2011 – 2014, by physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, suspended solids, BOD5, COD, total N and total P), with a view to their discharge into the receiving water body (Bedechka river) and as a resource for irrigation of crops. For sampling and sample preparation of wastewater, international references of ISO and BSS were used. Sample analyses were made by equipment as follows: temperature and pH – BSS, by рН-meter Multi HQ440d with integrated temperature sensor; suspended solids – BSS; BOD5 – BSS EN 1899-1:2004 and BSS EN 1899-2:2004; COD – ISO 15705:2002 by Spectrophotometer – DR and Thermal reactor-DRB 200; total N and total P by UV/VIS Spectrophotometer and standard cuvette tests of “Hach-Lange” Company, Germany. It was found that: 1) Untreated wastewater (MWWTP input) is characterized by: temperature 7.8oC – 23.0oC, pH 7.47 – 8.41 pH units, suspended solids 46.0 – 167.5 mg/L, BOD 568.4 – 169.3 mg/L, COD 154.4 – 386.5 mg/L, total N 13.0 – 34.6 mg/L and total P 1.95 – 4.40 mg/L; 2) Treated waste water (MWWTP output) is characterized by: temperature 8.2 – 22.3oC, pH 7.24 – 7.40 pH units, suspended solids 1.90 – 35.7 mg/L, BOD5 1.30 – 13.3 mg/L, COD 15.0 mg/L – 34.9 mg/L, total N 2.80 11.6 mg/L and total P 0.60 – 3.67 mg/L; 3) Effectiveness of wastewater treatment by different indicators is as follows: suspended solids 80.5 – 93.6%, BOD5 95.7 – 96.4%, COD 89.0 – 90.8%, total N 64.3% – 74.0% and total P 28.0 – 70.5%; 4) Treated wastewater meets the regulatory requirements for discharge into the receiving water body – Bedechka river by indicators: suspended solids, BOD5, COD, total N and total P (in 2013 and 2014), and deviates from them by content of total N in January 2012 and total P in 2011 and 2012; 5) Treated wastewater meets the regulatory requirements for irrigation of crops by all investigated indices (temperature, pH, suspended solids, BOD5, COD, total N and total P); 6) Despite the high efficiency of the wastewater treatment in MWWTP the problem with nutrients (N, P) is not entirely resolved, which requires improving the technological operation of WWTP and use of suitable additives for their elimination.


Influence of the distillation rate on the quality and quantity of essential oil from Rosa alba L.

A. Dobreva*

Institute of Roses, Essential and Medical Plants, 49 Osvobojdenie, 6100 Kazanlak, Bulgaria

Abstract. The aim of the investigations was to trace the influence of the speed level on the distillation of white oil-bearing rose. Using the methods of direct distillation of fresh rose flowers, it has been found that increasing the pressure and the flow rate of the distillate high yield can be achieved, but deterioration of thequalityoftheessentialoilisobserved.TheoptimalrateofprocessingforRosaalbaL.is8–10%. Inthiswaytheyieldisrisingupto0.02%andthevalueof the ratio of terpene alcohols / hydrocarbons is enhanced up to 0.74.


Influence of Herbagreen mineral fertilizer on seed production of cucumber, melon and zucchini

N. Velkov, V. Petkova
Abstract. The effect of Herbagreen mineral fertilizer on seed production of cucumber, melon and zucchini was evaluated. Three times treatment with the fertilizer at a dose of 0.04% at an interval of 14 days has a positive effect on seed yield in the studied cultures. Proven high effect was established in the indicator number of fruit per plant. There were no significant differences between treated and untreated (control) variants at the indicators: number of seeds per fruit, number of seeds per gram, weight of seeds per fruit (g), number of seeds per gram; absolute mass of seeds (g). Increasing the yield of the seed does not have any negative effect on the quality of the seeds. By the worked out regression equations the effect of application of Herbagreen could be foreseen.


Influence of universal liquid fertilizer MaxGrow on yield and quality of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivar Progress

G. Panayotova, A. Stoyanova
Abstract. During the period 2008 – 2010 the response of durum wheat cultivar Progress, grown on Eutric Vertisols at the field of the Field Crops Institute, Chirpan, Bulgaria to foliar feeding with universal liquid fertilizer MaxGrow was studied. The fertilizer was applied once and twice during tillering – beginning of stem elongation stage at doses of 3 and 5 l/ha, alone and in combination with N120 fertilization. The results showed that foliar feeding with MaxGrow improved growth, yield and grain quality and was an effective agronomic activity for durum wheat. Under single foliar feeding with 3 and 5 l/ha the average grain yield increased by 3.6 to 10.2 % over the check, whereas at twofold spraying with the same doses yields increased by more than 9.9 and 15.5 %. The liquid fertilizer MaxGrow can be successfully used at a dose of 5 l/ha for durum wheat feeding. After combined foliar and N fertilization the grain yield exceeded the standard N120 fertilization by 0.12–0.22 t.ha-1 and for the same period it reached 4.27 t.ha-1. MaxGrow had a favorable effect on the grain quality. Under the influence of MaxGrow and nitrogen fertilization, the plant height at the end of vegetation exceeded by 24.6–26.2 % compared to the water check, the test weight ranged from 79.98 to 80.73 kg.hl-1, the 1000 kernel weight increased by 5.6–7.0 %, vitreousness – by 40.7 to 48.8 %, the crude protein content – to 24.8 % and wet gluten – to 14.9 % over the water control.


Sanitary hygienic assessment of drinking water from underground source at a pig farm

G. Kostadinova
Abstract. The aim of the study was to investigate and assess the quality of drinking water, obtained from own well source at a pig farm (with an average daily number of reared pigs 532 units), situated in South Bulgaria, Plovdiv Municipality, on the base of main organoleptic, physical, chemical and microbiological indices. For this purpose once a month (from July 2009 to March 2010.) water samples were collected and analyzed by reference methods of Bulgarian State Standard. It was found that the quality of water correspond to the norms concerning organoleptic indices (smell – State 0, norm up to State 2; color – 5°color degrees, norm up to 15°color degrees; visibility – over 65 cm thickness of the water plast through that should clearly seen special text, norm at least 30 cm; taste – no flavor, norm no flavor), chemical indices (pH 7.45÷7.75, norm 6.5–9.5; oxidizability 0.72÷2.16 mg O /L, norm up to 5.0 mg O /L; total hardness 2.82÷4.45 2 2 mg Σqv/L, norm up to 12.0 mg Σqv/L; content of chlorides 20.3÷36.0 mg/l, norm up to 250.0 mg/L, ammonia – not proved, norm up to 0.50 mg/L, nitrites 0.007- 0.094 mg/L, norm up to 0.50 mg/L, and nitrates 3.0÷25.0 mg/L, norm up to 50.0 mg/L) and total number of cultivable microorganisms (5 -18 CFU/mL), norm – without significant variability of the index value of the investigated water. The only exception was found for the water temperature, whose maximum values exceeded the requirements of the standard (16 oC) and number of Escherichia coli (Coliform’s test), which values were higher than norm (0 CFU/100 mL), for both indices during five months from the studied period. The deviation in the quality of water in respect content of E. coli suggests anthropogenic pollution on groundwater of the own well with coliform bacteria, containing in manure and urine from the pigs in the farm. Organoleptic, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the sampled water meet the requirements of the Dutch standard for drinking water for pigs. This standard allows higher level of oxygenation of the water and higher levels of ammonium and nitrate content in water compared to Bulgarian standard for humans and animals drinking water. Perhaps time has come, as in the Netherlands to develop a national standard for drinking water, which be applied only to farm animals.


Evaluation of double haploid lines of winter malting barley using selection indices

B. Dyulgerova, D. Valcheva
Abstract. Twenty two double haploid lines from winter malting barley breeding program of the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat were tested in randomized complete block design with four replications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the breeding potential of double haploid lines of winter malting barley using multiple selection indices. Selection indices used included: Elston’s index, Baker’s index, Rank summation index and a simple-weighted index as proposed by Wehner. The significant correlation between selection indices calculated for 6 quality traits (1000 grain weight, hectoliter weight, malt extract content, protein content, germination on day 3 and grain grading) and indices based on the most important 4 (1000 grain weight, hectoliter weight, malt extract content and protein content) quality traits was found, indicating that the 4-trait indices could be substituted using 6-trait indices to save work in data collection. Selection indices were calculated using the most important 4 quality traits and grain yield. The lines A 9/16, A 8/3, A 25/19, A 15/2 combine the desired quality characteristics with high grain yield and can be selected for further evaluation in a breeding program of winter malting barley.


Effect of the environment on the quality of flour from common winter wheat cultivars

I. Stoeva, E. Penchev
Abstract. In relation to the new breeding strategies, during 2009 – 2011 an investigation was carried out on the most recent cultivars of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute – General Toshevo (Pchelina, Goritsa, Kalina, Kiara, Kossara, Katarzhina) with the aim to determine the range of variation of their technological characteristics depending on the environmental conditions. By using PCI and discriminant analysis, the effect of some of these quality indices on bread volume was determined. It was found out that the investigated cultivars possess differently determined optimum of expression of the quality indices according to their genotype and the year conditions. During the period of investigation the cultivars did not demonstrate advantages of the properties of flour over the standards Aglika and Sadovo 1. It was established that the main component consisting of the variables time of dough development, dough stability by pharinograph and sedimentation had significant contribution to the total variation of bread volume. The main differentiation of the cultivars by bread volume was due to sedimentation, time for dough development, dough stability and the value of quality by pharinograph. On this basis the cultivars were divided into 2 quality groups: 1) excellent bread making properties: Pchelina, Goritsa, Kiara and Aglika; 2) very good and good bread making properties: Kalina, Kossara, Katarzhina and Sadovo1, which confirmed their already known distribution by breadmaking quality.


Evaluation of pork meat quality and freshness using colorimetric and spectral methods

S. Atanassova, T. Stoyanchev, S. Ribarski
Abstract. The aim of the study was investigation of the feasibility of colour measurements and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a tool for the prediction of pork meat freshness. Chilled pork loin samples (12 different batches) were collected from different retail meat markets. The meat was cut in slices 1-1,5 cm thick and placed in sterilized glass Petri dishes, in aseptic laboratory conditions. The samples were placed in cooling incubator for storage at 6°С for 10 days. On the day of samples preparing, as well as on the 3, 7 and 10 day during storage meat samples from each batch were taken for measurement. Biochemical and microbiological parameters – pH, amino acid nitrogen and total bacterial count were determined. Colour measurements were made by portable colorimeter Lovibond RT and data were presented as three-dimensional coordinates L*, a* and b* in the colorimetric system CIELab. NIR measurements were performed by NIRQuest 512 spectrometer in the region 900-1700 nm using reflection fibre-optic probe. Partial least square regression with internal cross-validation was used for calibration models development for determination of tested parameters on the base of spectral data.Differences in both colour coordinates and nearinfrared spectral data of fresh and spoiled meat samples were found. Colour measurements of meat samples in our experiment did not allow accurate determination of parameters, characterizing meat spoilage. The most significant spectral differences were observed in the region from 1360 to1470 nm and at 1642nm. Determination of pH, amino acid nitrogen and total bacterial count by PLS regression on the basis of near-infrared spectra showed good accuracy of determination for pH and amino acid nitrogen content and very good accuracy of determination of total bacterial count. The results demonstrated that the NIR spectral measurement is superior to colour measurement for predicting microbial contamination and meat spoilage.


Water quality assessment from own source at poultry farm located in rural region in South Bulgaria

R. Stefanova, G. Kostadinova, N. Georgieva
Abstract. The aim of the study was to investigate and assess the quality of water, obtained from own well source at a poultry farm (with capacity 13 350 hens and turkeys), situated in rural area in South Bulgaria, on the basis of organoleptic (smell, color, visibility, taste), physical (temperature) and chemical (pH, permanganate oxidation, hardness, chlorides, ammonia, nitrates, nitrites) indices. It was found that the quality of water corresponded to the norms concerning the organoleptic (smell – 0 ball, norm up to 2 ball; color – 5°, norm up to 15°; visibility – over 60 cm thickness of water plast, norm at least 30 cm; taste – no flavor, norm no flavor), physical (temperature – 13.5-16.8 oC, norm 6-16 oC) and chemical (pH 6.80÷7.15, norm 6.5-9.5; oxidizability 0.24÷0.72 mg O /l, norm up to 5.0 2 mg O /l; hardness 6.49÷7.55 mg Σqv/l, norm up to 12.0 mg Σqv/l; chlorides 162.0÷197.0 mg/l, norm up to 250.0 mg/l and nitrites 0.0÷0.021 mg/l, norm up to 2 0.5 mg/l) indices. The most significant deviation from quality standards were observed regarding the concentration of ammonia (0.01÷0.6, norm up to 0.5 mg/l) and nitrates (58.0÷110.0 mg/l, norm up to 50.0 mg/l).