Breeding assessment of new promising cotton lines

V. Dimitrova, R. Dragov

Field Crops Institute – Chirpan, 6200 Chirpan, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 7 June 2021; accepted for publication 2 August 2021)

Abstract. Cotton breeding in Bulgaria is mainly aimed at improving the earliness, productivity and fiber quality of modern varieties. The creation of new genetic diversity is one of the basic prerequisites for the success of breeding programs. The aim of the study was to evaluate cotton lines obtained by intraspecific and remote hybridization combined with backcross technology, with a view to their most effective usage in selection. Twenty-three lines were included in competitive variety trials conducted during the 2014-2017 period. The averaged results showed that lines 550, 639, 641, obtained by remote hybridization, appeared to be very promising. These three lines were distinguished by the best combination of productivity, fiber length and fiber lint percentage, and by these three indicators they exceeded the standard variety Chirpan-539. A new cotton variety Aida (No. 457) was approved, which in seed cotton yield and fiber yield, and technological fiber properties surpassed the standard varieties Chirpan-539 for earliness and productivity and Avangard-264 for fiber quality. The candidate variety 535 continued the state variety testing. Two new candidate cotton varieties No. 550 and No. 553 were released. In the state variety testing the three candidate varieties confirmed their qualities. The obtained lines, distinguished by one trait or by a complex of qualities, enriched the gene pool of Bulgarian cotton.

Effect of irrigation rate on Sudan grass yield, grown as a second crop

R. Bazitov*

Agricultural Institute, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 24 October 2020; accepted for publication 12 May 2021)

Abstract. The aim of the present study was to establish the effect of irrigation rate on the yield of Sudan grass variety Engje-1, grown as a second crop for silage on meadow-cinnamon soil for the region of Southern Bulgaria. For this purpose, an experiment with Sudan grass variety Endje-1 on the experimental field of the Agricultural Institute – Stara Zagora, after its predecessor barley, was conducted. The Sudan grass was harvested in the brooming stage. Five variants were explored: Variant 1 – without irrigation (control); Variant 2 – with optimal irrigation, 75-80% of field capacity (FC); Variant 3 – irrigation as Var.2 but with removal of the first watering; Variant 4 – irrigation as Var.2 but with removal of the second watering; Variant 5 – irrigation as Var.2, but with removal of the third watering. It was found that the efficiency of 1m3 of irrigation water was the highest at the optimum variant (Var.2), where 5.36 kg of dry mass (DM) were produced by 1 m3 of water. With the removal of the second irrigation (Var.4), the yield on the dry mass decreased by 6.4% compared to the optimal variant (Var.2), and with the removal of the first irrigation (Var.3) the losses on the dry mass reached, 12.3%, respectively. The highest values of this indicator were obtained by varying the second irigation (Vаr.4) – 7.53 kgDM/m3 water. The coefficient of efficiency of the irrigation rate, representing the ratio between the increase of the yield (in comparison with the version without irrigation – Vаr.1), and the size of the realized irrigation norm had the highest value in the version without second irrigation (Vаr.4) and the lowest values for the version without first irrigation (Vаr.3).

Productivity and feed quality of Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf.) and sweet sorghum forms

S. Enchev*

Agricultural Institute, 3 Simeon Veliki, 9700 Shumen, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 24 August 2020; accepted for publication 22 February 2021)

Abstract. During the period 2017-2018, the feed quality and productivity of three Sudan grass varieties – Endje 1, Vercors and Super Sweet, one stabilized Sudan grass population – SWT, local sweet sorghum – „Zaharna metla“ population and the sweet sorghum cultivar “Shumensko sladko” were researched in Agricultural Institute – Shumen. Green mass (t/ha), dry matter (%) and dry mass production (%) as well as basic nutritional characteristics by the two swaths of the tested cultivars in brooming phase were controlled. It was found that the sweet sorghum cultivar “Shumensko sladko” gave the highest amount of green mass – 59.5 t/ha by two swaths, and the dry mass yield was the highest from the cultivar Endje 1 – 20.8 t/ha. In terms of chemical composition, the greatest variation was demonstrated in phosphorus content (0.369-0.696%, CV=27.3%), followed by crude fat (1.28-2.39%, CV=26.8%), Ca (0.889-1.572%, CV=21.8%), crude protein (6.05-9.00%, CV=14.6%), nitrogen free extracts (42.05-51.20%, CV=7.6%), crude fiber (32.64-39.26%, CV=6.1%) and mineral substances (8.17-9.61%, CV=5.9%). It can be summarized that all hybrids provide quality hay, however the Bulgarian cultivars Endje 1 and “Shumensko sladko” showed the best nutritional value – compared to Super Sweet, Vercors, SWT and “Zaharna metla”.

Growth and yield of orange (Washington Navel 141) grafted on different citrus rootstocks

Alaa Suhiel Ibrahim*

Research station of Ciano, Jableh, the agricultural scientific research center in Lattakia, General corps of scientific agricultural researches, Syria

(Manuscript received 26 May 2020; accepted for publication 27 July 2020)

Abstract. This investigation was conducted during 2014, 2015 and 2016 in the field of the citrus experimental station in Ciano, the general corps of scientific agricultural researches. The growth and yield of orange trees (Washington navel 141) budded on seven citrus rootstocks (Sour orange, Troyer citrange, Carrizo citrange, Citrumelo 4475, Citrumelo 1452, Macrophylla and Cleopatra mandarin) and farmed since 1989 have been studied. The results for the average of yield showed that the trees grafted on Cleopatra mandarin (58.33 kg. tree-1) were significantly superior to those grafted on Macrophylla (34.17 kg. tree-1). Orange trees grafted on Citrumelo 4475 and Citrumelo 1452 were significantly superior to other treatments in trunk section area of the rootstock (922.41 and 841.02 cm2, respectively). The greatest fruit fresh weight was in trees grafted on Citrumelo 4475 (284.85 g. fruit-1) which were significantly superior to those grafted on Carrizo and Troyer citrange (232.49 and 236.06 g. fruit-1, respectively). The biggest total soluble solids (%) was in trees grafted on Carrizo and Troyer citrange (12.83% for both treatments) which were significantly superior to those grafted on Sour orangе and Macrophylla (11.5% for both treatments), while the greatest total acids (%) was by Sour orange (2.08%) without significant differences.

The effect of laundry grey water irrigation on the growth response of selected local bean species in Nigeria

B. Ikhajiagbe1,2, E.O. Ohanmu1,3*, P.O. Ekhator1, P.A. Victor1

1Environmental Biotechnology and Sustainability Research Group, Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
2Applied Environmental Biosciences and Public Health Research Group, Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

3Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Edo University Iyamho, Edo State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 25 July 2019; accepted for publication 5 February 2020)

Abstract. This study examined the growth responses of some selected local bean (pulses) varieties in Nigeria; Vigna unguiculata (Ife brown), Vigna unguiculata (Ekpoma Local), Phaseolus vulgaris, Cajanus cajan and Glycine max, cultivated on soil irrigated with laundry-based grey water. Healthy seeds of all bean species were sown in plastic bowls of three replicates each and irrigated daily with similar quantities of the respective grey water. The effect of the grey water on the germination, growth and yield of all the beans was observed for a period of four months. The result obtained revealed that grey water had a negative effect on the growth and yield of all the beans as there was a decrease in the percentage emergence of all seedlings, height of emergent seedlings and number of flowers and pods produced. Grey water also altered the chlorophyll content and total crude protein of all the beans subjected to the treatment. The effect of grey water on plant is as a result of accumulation of excess salts contained in grey water on the soil.

Efficacy of different herbicide combinations for weed control in irrigated maize silage

R. Bazitov*

Agricultural Institute, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 1 October 2019; accepted for publication 13 January 2020)

Abstract: The aim of this study was to establish the efficacy of herbicide combinations between Tender EC and Titus + Magneto SL, and Wing P and Mistral Opti applied in a field of maize under the conditions of mixed irrigation. The study has been carried out with maize cultivated on meadow-cinnamon soil at the experimental field of the Agricultural Institute – Stara Zagora for the period 2014-2016. The research was conducted with a mid-grade hybrid corn LG35.62 with the same background of fertilization and irrigation with the following variants: 1) Control (without herbicides); 2) Wing P – 4000 ml/ha and Mistral Opti – 210 ml/ha, and 3) Tender EC – 1500 ml/ha and a mixture of Titus – 40 g/ha + Magnet SL – 1200 ml/ha. Increasе of maize yield by 41.6% (on average) in comparison with the control variant and by 28.9% compared to the variant Wing P and Mistral Opti was found.

Assessment of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes based on their agronomic characters and tolerance to biotic stress

İ. Öztürk1*, A. Şen2, T.H. Kılıç1, Ş. Şili1

1Trakia Agricultural Research Institute, Edirne, Turkey
2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey

(Manuscript received 15 April 2019; accepted for publication 10 September 2019)

Abstract. The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence and severity of biotic stress factors, quality and agronomic parameters and its effect on yield and quality character of wheat genotypes. The experiment was conducted at Trakia Agricultural Research Institute, Edirne experimental area, during 2013-2015 cropping years. Grain yield, days of heading, plant height, 1000-kernel weight, test weight, protein ratio, leaf rust, stripe rust, Septoria leaf spot and relationship among these parameters were investigated. Based on a two years data, apart from protein content, other parameters showed significant difference (p<0.05). When compared to the mean yields in both cropping years, the genotypes Gelibolu and BBVD-3, BBVD-4, BBVD-9 genotypes were determined the better-adapted genotypes under target environment. Cultivar Aldane and TCI011322-8 line was detected as very tolerant to leaf rust and stripe rust in both years under the infection of field condition. Aldane had higher protein ratio, 1000-kernel weight and test weight. Grain yield was positively correlated with test weight and negatively correlated with foliar diseases. A highly significant negative correlation was determined between grain yield and plant height in both growing years. Leaf rust and Septoria tritici leaf disease had negative effect on protein ratio in both years. There was a significant positive relation between 1000-kernel weight and test weight. Results of the study indicated that based on biotic stress factors BBVD-6, BBVD-7 and TCI011322-8 are promising lines that need to be improved a bit further.

Biotic stress factors in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes under various environmental conditions in Trakia Region

İ. Öztürk*

Trakia Agricultural Research Institute, Edirne, Turkey

(Manuscript received 20 December 2018; accepted for publication 16 April 2019)

Abstract. Barley is an important crop in Trakia region, Turkey and due to various environmental factors it can suffer some biotic stress and yield loss in the region. This research was carried out in two locations (Edirne and Tekirdağ) of Trakia region during 2013-2014 growing year. The experiment was set up with 25 advanced genotypes in completely randomized blocks with four replications at two locations. Grain yield, plant height, days to heading, leaf rust, net blotch, powdery mildew and relationship among these characters were investigated. According to the results, there was significant difference among genotypes for grain yield, biotic stress factors and other characters. The mean grain yield of the genotypes was 6866 kg ha-1. TEA1619-11 had the highest grain yield with 7667 kg ha-1. TEA2311-19 (7593 kg ha-1) and Harman (7593 kg ha-1) were the other highest yielding genotypes. Due to various environmental conditions, there was significant difference between locations. Mean yield in Edirne location was 7841 kg ha-1 and in Tekirdağ location it was 5891 kg ha-1. TEA1619-8 and TEA1619-9 sister lines had the shortest plant height and early genotypes had higher grain yield. Net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. teres) is the mainly prevalent disease in Trakya region. Leaf rust and powdery mildew had negative effect and decreased grain yield. TEA1619-12, TEA1619-17, TEA2311-19 and TEA1980-25 genotypes were resistant at both locations. TEA1980-25 was an outstanding line to net blotch, leaf rust and powdery mildew. It was determined that increase of net blotch had negative effect and decreased the grain yield in the genotypes.

Yield and seed quality of some soybean (Glycine max. L) varieties, cultivated in Osmaniye region, Turkey

F.F. Aşik, R. Yildiz

 

Oil Seeds Research Institute, 80950 Osmaniye, Turkey

 

DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.042

(Manuscript received 21 May 2018; accepted for publication 2 August 2018)

 

Abstract. This study was carried out to determine yield and seed quality of 14 soybean varieties (Blaze, Ataem-7, Bravo, İlksoy, Çetinbey, Nova, Atakişi, Cinsoy, Adasoy, Umut-2002, Türksoy, Arısoy, HA.16-21 and SA-88), conducted with 3 replicates, according to the Randomized Block Experimental Design in the Osmaniye region, Turkey during 2016 growing season. Plant height, seed number per pod, first pod height, number of branches per plant, number of pods per node, number of pods per plant, harvest index, protein content, oil content, hundred seed weight, seed yield and fatty acid composition were the parameters examined. It was found that the controlled parameters values at different soybean varieties ranged as follows: plant height – between 69.47cm (Blaze) and 101.83cm (HA.16-21); number of seeds per pod – between 1.82 units/pod (Adasoy) and 2.21 units/pod (Blaze); first pod height – between 13.10cm (Blaze) and 22.53 cm (Umut-2002); number of branches per plant – between 1.07 units/plant (HA.16-21) and 3.00 units/plant (Nova); number of pods per node – between 2.43 units/node (Umut-2002) and 4.81 units/node (Adasoy); number of pods per plant – between 27.40 units/plant (Umut-2002) and 47.73 units/plant (Adasoy); Harvest Index values – between 43.99% (HA.16-21) and 54.72% (Ataem) – 55.42% (Blaze); protein content – between 36.09% (Nova) and 39.17% (Çetinbey); oil content – between 15.71% (Blaze) and 19.73% (Türksoy) – 19.82% (Arısoy); 100 seed weight – between 12.54g (Arısoy) and 19.18g (Çetinbey); seed yield – between 2470.41 kg/ha (Arısoy) and 3280.03 kg/ha (Adasoy); acid composition values: palmitic acid – from 9.97% (Türksoy) to 11.47% (Çetinbey); stearic acid – from 3.82% (Ataem-7) to 4.38% (Türksoy); oleic acid – from 22.39% (Bravo) to 28.14% (Çetinbey); linoleic acid – from 47.30% (Çetinbey) to 53.26%  (Ataem-7) and linolenic acid – from 5.49% (Türksoy) to 6.88% (Bravo). The soybean varieties tested showed different advantages over the individual parameters: in terms of seed yield – Adasoy (3280.03 kg/ha) and Atakişi (3260.60 kg/ha) varieties; in terms of protein content – Çetinbey (39.17%) followed by SA-88 (38.55%) genotype; in terms of oil content – Türksoy variety (19.82%) followed by Arisoy (19.73%) variety; in terms of fatty acid composition the results are very diverse.

 

Variability and grain yield potential of maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes under irrigated condition in central Sudan

M.B. Alhussein1, S.H. Suliman2, A.A. Mohammed3

 

1Maize research program, Agricultural Research Corporation, Wad Medani, Sudan

2Crop sciences section, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Gezira, Wad Medani, Sudan

3Maize research program, Agricultural Research Corporation, Wad Medani, Sudan

 

DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.038

(Manuscript received 25 May 2018; accepted for publication 27 August 2018)

 

Abstract. These experiments were conducted in two different sites to study the genetic variability and the mean performance of the elite different origin maize genotypes under irrigated condition in central region of Sudan during rainy season of 2015. The experiments were arranged in randomized complete block design with three replicates, the data were collected on days to 50% tasseling and silking, plant and ear height, ear length and diameter and grain yield. The analysis of variance for each site and cross sites showed a significant variability among tested genotypes for grain yield, days to 50% tasseling and silking, plant and ear height, ear length and diameter. Also significant differences were observed for genotypes, site and a cross site for most of the studied traits such as for grain yield, days to 50% tasseling and silking, plant and ear height, ear length and diameter. The combined results for genotypic coefficients of variability and broad sense heritability estimates grain yield, ear length and ear diameter varied significantly among the tested genotypes.