Sources of resistance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) to ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei)

  1. Koleva1, Y. Stanoeva2, I. Kiryakov2, A. Ivanova1

 

1Department of Crop Science and Plant protection, College Dobrich, University Bishop Konstantin Preslavski-Shumen, 9300 Dobrich, Bulgaria

2Dobroudzha Agricultural Institute, 9520 General Toshevo, Bulgaria

 

DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.037

(Manuscript received 4 June 2018; accepted for publication 3 August 2018)

 

Abstract. Ascochyta blight is the major biotic stress that causes significant yield losses in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) all over the world. The disease is caused by the fungus Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab (telemorph Dydimella rabiei = Mycosphaerella rabiei (Kovachevski) v. Arx. The use of resistant cultivars is widely acknowledged as the most economic and environmentally friendly method for disease control. The aim of this study is to screen chickpea cultivars and lines for resistance to ascochyta blight with a view for using them in a breeding program. The investigations were carried out during 2012-2017 in Dobroudzha Agricultural Institute (DAI) – General Toshevo. Twenty chickpea accessions were inoculated under field and greenhouse conditions with 30 Ascochyta rabiei isolates. Disease reaction was estimated after 14 days by using 9-degree scale. Disease incidence (DI) was calculated according to the Mc Kinney index. Cluster analysis was used to group the accessions and isolates according to the DI. Nine accessions showed middle resistance under field conditions during the three years of investigations. No immune or resistant accession to all 30 isolates was found under greenhouse conditions. The cluster analysis grouped the accessions into two major classes. One of the classes consists of two accessions (XOOC01CA0490B0223D and XOOC01CA0490B2140D) which showed middle resistance to 12 and 13 of the isolates, respectively. The cluster analysis grouped the isolates into classes, subclasses and sub sub classes according to their virulence to the 20 chickpea accessions. The highest virulence showed five isolates (AR 883, AR 061, AR R1, AR 1013, AR 1015) with DI from 5.40 to 9.00 in all accessions. Differences in field and greenhouse results were expected and they were due to the strong dependence of disease development to climatic conditions. The results in this investigation showed that two chickpea accessions can be used in a breeding program for ascochyta blight resistance.

Phenotypic diversity in six-rowed winter barley (Hordeum sativum L.) varieties

  1. Dyulgerov, B. Dyulgerova

 

Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 24 July 2017; accepted for publication 19 January 2018)

 

Abstract. The objective of this investigation was to study the phenotypic diversity among six-rowed winter barley varieties. The study was conducted in the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat, during the period 2014/2015-2015/2016. The diversity among 22 barley varieties was estimated using principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Maximum variation was found for grain weight per a spike and grain number per a spike. The presence of significant variation among the evaluated six-rowed winter barley varieties suggests an opportunity for improvement of grain yield through using promising genotypes as parents in the winter barley improvement program.

Evaluation of small size fruit peppers Capsicum annuum spp. microcarpum with cluster and factor analysis

V. Kuneva1*, M. Nikolova

1Department of Mathematics, Informatics and Physics, Faculty of Economics, Аgricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria 2Institute of Plant Genetic Resources K. Malkov, 4122 Sadovo, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 4 July 2016; accepted for publication 28 August 2016)

Abstract. 43 specimens of local small size fruit peppers (Capsicum annuum sub. microcarpum) were examined and characterized with reference to the indicators: shrub height, number of shrub branches, leaf length, leaf width, fruit length, fruit diameter, one pepper mass, 1000 seeds mass, number of fruit on one plant. The research was conducted in the experimental field of Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (IPGR), Sadovo, in the period of 2009 – 2011. On the base of the examined indicators, the specimens were evaluated complexly through a hierarchical cluster analysis. Genetically close specimens were grouped in 7 main clusters and presented with the help of a dendrogramm. In addition, a factor analysis was made to establish the indices with the highest influence of distribution of the specimens in the received clusters. The main 10 indicators from the research are reduced to 4 factors, which are responsible for 76.16% from the total dispersion of variables. The principal indicators that separate the examined specimens in clusters are: leaf length and width, fruit length and diameter, as well as mass of one pepper. This classification helps for a higher objectiveness of evaluation. It leads to a more complete characterization of small size fruit peppers for their more rational use in different selective programs.

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Estimation of differences in trace element composition of Bulgarian summer fruits using ICP-MS

G. Toncheva1, K. Nikolova2, D. Georgieva3, G. Antova4, V. Kuneva5

1Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry with Methodology of Chemistry Education, Faculty of Chemistry University of Plovdiv Paisii Hilendarski,
4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
2Department of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Economics University of Food Technologies, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
3Department of Analytical Chemistry and Computer Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Plovdiv Paissii Hilendarski, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
4Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Plovdiv Paissii Hilendarski, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
5Department of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Faculty of Economics, Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 14 May 2016; accepted for publication 20 June 2016)

Abstract. The content of potentially essential and toxic elements: chromium, manganese, iron, copper, nickel, cadmium and arsenic in Bulgarian fruits such as aronia, morello, cherry, raspberry, nectarine peach, apple type „akane” and pear type „early gold” were investigated. By using the ICP-MS we found that raspberry has the highest content of iron (4635.9 ± 53.2 μg kg-1), manganese (5690.9 ± 31.7 μg kg-1) and chromium (150.2 ± 2.5 μg kg-1), while the richest in copper is the nectarine (887.5 ± 31.19 μg kg-1). The content of toxic elements (nickel, cadmium and arsenic) is in amount significantly below the permissible standards. Single ANOVA and subsequent Dunkan’s test were used to define the fruit and to estimate the significance of chemical elements. The test for multidirectional comparisons indicated that for five of the investigated seven elements: iron, copper, nickel, cadmium, and arsenic the fruits are statistically distinguishable. According to hierarchical cluster analysis the fruits are into one cluster.

 

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Evaluation of Bulgarian winter common wheat varieties of yield stability in South Bulgaria

Z. Uhr1*, G. Rachovska, G. Delchev

Abstract. The study was conducted during the period 2009–2011 at three locations of South Bulgaria with different agro-climatic conditions – Instute of Plant Genetic Resources Sadovo, the Experimental Stations in Sredets and Ivaylo. Were tested 21 prospective winter common wheat varieties breeded in IPGR Sadovo and DZI General Toshevo, using block dising with four replication and 10 m2 plot size. The aim of the study was to determine the productivity, yield stability and genetic distance of the main Bulgarian varieties of common winter wheat in relation with their use while breeding and growing them in South Bulgaria . The resulting values for the parameters σi2 and Si2 identified the varieties Slaveya, Karina , Yunak and Boryana as the most stable ones, showing the least interaction with the environment . The indicator for the yield and stability Ysi defined as the most valuable the varieties Geya1, Yunak, Boryana, Boliarka , Kristi, Iveta , Albena and Diamant regarding their selection. At the same time the most stable regarding all tested parameters are both varieties Yunak and Boryana.

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Usage of cluster analysis for grouping hybrids and evaluation of experimental mutant maize hybrids

M. Ilchovska, I. Ivanova
Abstract. A total of 21 experimental maize hybrids and 3 standards were studied and characterized with regard to the traits: length of the ear, diameter of the ear, number of the rows of the ear, weight of the ear, weight of the grains of the ear, number of the grains in one row of the ear, rate of yield and grain yield. Based on the examined traits, the genotypes are evaluated in their complexity by hierarchical cluster analysis. The genetically close mutant hybrids are grouped into four main clusters presented graphically at the dendrogram. The classification made allows for increasing the objectivity of the evaluation, which results in more complete characterization of the experimental maize hybrids with a view to their more rational use in various selection programs.

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Grouping of determinate local tomato varieties on the basis of cluster analysis

The purpose of this paper is to classify the genetic proximity of a collection of 49 local determinant tomato accessions based on 18 quantitative indicators evaluated. By hierarchical cluster analysis they are grouped into 5 clusters. The classifications will increase the objectivity in the evaluation of accessions and the opportunity for application of different directions in the selection of tomatoes.

Grouping of determinate local tomato varieties on the basis of cluster analysis

L. Krasteva, I. Ivanova, N. Velcheva