Biotic stress factors in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes under various environmental conditions in Trakia Region

İ. Öztürk*

Trakia Agricultural Research Institute, Edirne, Turkey

(Manuscript received 20 December 2018; accepted for publication 16 April 2019)

Abstract. Barley is an important crop in Trakia region, Turkey and due to various environmental factors it can suffer some biotic stress and yield loss in the region. This research was carried out in two locations (Edirne and Tekirdağ) of Trakia region during 2013-2014 growing year. The experiment was set up with 25 advanced genotypes in completely randomized blocks with four replications at two locations. Grain yield, plant height, days to heading, leaf rust, net blotch, powdery mildew and relationship among these characters were investigated. According to the results, there was significant difference among genotypes for grain yield, biotic stress factors and other characters. The mean grain yield of the genotypes was 6866 kg ha-1. TEA1619-11 had the highest grain yield with 7667 kg ha-1. TEA2311-19 (7593 kg ha-1) and Harman (7593 kg ha-1) were the other highest yielding genotypes. Due to various environmental conditions, there was significant difference between locations. Mean yield in Edirne location was 7841 kg ha-1 and in Tekirdağ location it was 5891 kg ha-1. TEA1619-8 and TEA1619-9 sister lines had the shortest plant height and early genotypes had higher grain yield. Net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. teres) is the mainly prevalent disease in Trakya region. Leaf rust and powdery mildew had negative effect and decreased grain yield. TEA1619-12, TEA1619-17, TEA2311-19 and TEA1980-25 genotypes were resistant at both locations. TEA1980-25 was an outstanding line to net blotch, leaf rust and powdery mildew. It was determined that increase of net blotch had negative effect and decreased the grain yield in the genotypes.

Phenotypic diversity in six-rowed winter barley (Hordeum sativum L.) varieties

  1. Dyulgerov, B. Dyulgerova

 

Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 24 July 2017; accepted for publication 19 January 2018)

 

Abstract. The objective of this investigation was to study the phenotypic diversity among six-rowed winter barley varieties. The study was conducted in the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat, during the period 2014/2015-2015/2016. The diversity among 22 barley varieties was estimated using principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Maximum variation was found for grain weight per a spike and grain number per a spike. The presence of significant variation among the evaluated six-rowed winter barley varieties suggests an opportunity for improvement of grain yield through using promising genotypes as parents in the winter barley improvement program.

Agronomic performance of mutant lines of winter two-rowed barley

  1. Dyulgerova, D. Valcheva, N. Dyulgerov

 

Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 24 July 2017; accepted for publication 19 January 2018)

 

Abstract. The aim of this investigation was to study agronomic and morphological traits of winter two-rowed barley mutant lines in the M6 and M7 generations. Eight mutant lines, their parent – breeding line 244D and national standard cultivars – Obzor and Emon were evaluated in Complete Block Design with four replications. The research was conducted in the 2013/2014, 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 growing seasons in the experimental field of the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat, Southeastern Bulgaria. The characters studied included days to heading, plant height, lodging, peduncle length, spike length, awn length, spikelet number per spike, grain number per spike, grain weight per spike, 1000 grains weight, grain yield, protein content, extract content and grading (>2.5mm). Mutant lines M1/3, M1/5 and M1/217 produced a significantly greater grain yield than the parent and standard cultivars. The improvement of grain yield was associated with increasing of spike length and grain weight per spike. The studied mutant lines were characterized with a high yield ability combined with other valuable agronomic traits and can be used in a breeding program for developing winter malting  barley varieties.

Variation in the agronomic and morphological traits in spring barley

N. Dyulgerov, B. Dyulgerova*

Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 4 July 2017; accepted for publication 27 October 2017)

Abstract. The study was conducted to examine the variation in the agronomic and morphological traits in spring barley. For this purpose, 22 lines from the ICARDA High Input Barley Program for favorable environment and 3 check varieties (Rihane-03, VMorales and Veslets) were tested in an alpha-lattice design with two replications at the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat, Bulgaria in 2014 and 2015 growing season. The traits days to heading, plant height, number of tillers per plant, flag leaf length, flag leaf width, spike length, awn length, peduncle length, spikelet number per spike, grain number per spike, grain weight per spike, 1000 grains weight, grain yield, powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei), net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. teres) and stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei) infection were studied. Significant differences between lines for all studied traits were found. The number of fertile tillers per plant was significantly positively correlated with grain yield. Lines expressed higher grain yields, shorter stem, better tolerance to net blotch and stripe rust than Bulgarian check variety Veslets were identified. These genotypes can, therefore, be used as parents for the improvement of spring barley.

Variation in the chemical composition and physical characteristics of grain from winter barley varieties

B. Dyulgerova*, N. Dyulgerov, D. Dimova

Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 4 July 2017; accepted for publication 28 August 2017)

Abstract. The aim of the study was to evaluate the range of variation in chemical composition and in physical parameters of grain associated with feed quality of barley under the conditions of Southeast Bulgaria. A set of 21 winter six-rowed barley varieties from different geographic origins were investigated. The study was conducted in the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat, during the period 2013/2014 – 2014/2015. Grain samples of the studied varieties were analysed for crude protein, lysine, starch, crude fat, crude ash, crude fiber, hectoliter weight and 1000 grains weight. The coefficient of variation was the highest in crude fat (21.52%) followed by lysine (9.52%). Low variation among varieties was found in nitrogen-free extract (CV=1.56%) and hectoliter weight (CV=2.77%). Correlations of crude protein with lysine, starch and crude fiber were negative. Starch content was positively associated with crude fat and hectoliter weight. Significant negative correlation of nitrogen-free extract with crude fat and crude fiber was found. Differences in chemical composition and physical parameters of grain indicated that the studied varieties can provide a source of germplasm for breeding winter barley varieties with improved feed quality.

Evaluation of high yielding mutants of Hordeum vulgare cultivar Izgrev

B. Dyulgerova*, N. Dyulgerov

Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 7 February 2017; accepted for publication publication 31 May 2017)

Abstract. Seeds of Hordeum vulgare L. cultivar Izgrev were treated with different concentrations of sodium azide to induce genetic variability for the selection of genotypes with improved traits. After passing through different stages of selection, 18 promising mutants were selected for further studies. Eighteen mutants and their parent and national standard cultivar Veslets were evaluated in Complete Block Design with four replications. The research was conducted in 2013 – 2014 and 2014 – 2015 growing seasons in the experimental field of the Institute of Agriculture Karnobat, Southeastern Bulgaria. The characters studied included days to heading, plant height, lodging, peduncle length, spike length, awn length, spikelet number per spike, grain number per spike, grain weight per spike, 1000 grains weight and grain yield. Wide variation among mutant lines was observed for different traits. Mutant lines M4/16 and M3/14 produced significantly greater grain yield than the parent and standard cultivar. Positive changes in lodging tolerance, grain number per spike, grain weight per spike, 1000 grains weight were also observed. This study showed positive effects in the use of mutation in inducing improvement for grain yield and some yield related traits.

Characterization of a new winter malting barley cultivar Ahil

B. Dyulgerova*, Dr. Vulchev, T. Popova

Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 7 February 2017; accepted for publication 30 May 2017)

Abstract. Ahil is a new winter malting barley cultivar developed by the method of experimental mutagenesis at the Institute of Agriculture, Karnobat, Bulgaria. Biological and agronomic characteristics of the cultivar were also investigated for several years and at the Executive Agency of Varietal Testing, Field Inspection and Seed Control trails in the period 2012 – 2013. Averaged for 6 locations in Bulgaria grain yield of the new cultivar was significantly higher than the yield of standard cultivars with about 5%. At the Institute of Agriculture grain yield was 17% higher than the average standard for the period of 5 years. The cultivar has high winter hardness, lodging resistance, resistance to powdery mildew and medium resistance to brown rust. Ahil has good malting quality.

Loose smut of barley grown in three types of farming

T. Nedelcheva*, V. Maneva

Institute of Agriculture, 1 Industrialna, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 5 July 2016; accepted for publication 9 September 2016)

Abstract. Over the period of 2014-2015, on the experimental field of the Institute of Agriculture in Karnobat, Bulgaria, was set a field trial with twenty cultivars of barley – 15 two-row: Obzor, Emon, Perun, Orfey, Lardeya, Asparuh, Kuber, Zagorets, Imeon, Sayra, Devinya, Sitara, Krami, Vicky, Potok; 3 four-row: Veslets, Aheloy 2, Tamaris; and 2 six-row cultivars – IZ Bori and Bozhin. All the cultivars were grown in three types of farming: conventional, organic and biodynamic. In conventional farming were applied pesticides and nitrogen fertilization. In the organic production were not used pesticides, mineral and organic fertilizers; and in biodynamic farming was applied biodynamic compost prepared from manure and biodynamic preparations (also organic). In conventional farming, the seeds were disinfected before sowing with Kinto plus (Triticonazole 20 g/l + Prochloraz 60 g/l), at a rate of 150 ml/100 kg seeds. In organic and biodynamic farming were used nondisinfected seeds. In the phenophase of full maturity of barley was conducted monitoring survey for plants infected with loose smut in all the trial variants, the number of infected plants per m2 were counted and the infection rates were calculated. Infected plants of Tamaris grown in the three types of farming underwent microscopic analysis and measurement of 100 teliospores from each variant. The aim of this experiment was to investigate varietal susceptibility of barley to Ustilago nuda, grown in three types of farming, and to establish if the growing method affects the size of the teliospores of the pathogen. With two-row barley were found plants of Lardeya, Kuber, Devinya, Krami and Vicky infected with Ustilago nuda. Krami manifested the lowest resistance in the three types of farming. With four-row barley, Tamaris was found to be highly susceptible and Veslets was poorly resistant. Both cultivars expressed weaker susceptibility in conventional and biodynamic farming and stronger in organic. With six-row cultivars was found no infection. The cultivars of Obzor, Emon, Perun, Orfey, Asparuh, Zagorets, Imeon, Sayra, Sitara, Potok, Aheloy 2, IZ Bori and Bozhin were resistant to Ustilago nuda and are suitable to be grown in the three types of farming. The size of teliospores in organic farming exceeded the ones in conventional farming with 5.28%, and the ones in biodynamic farming were smaller with 0.93% on average. The differences were not proven, but the tendency can be explained with the various approaches in growing the crops.

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Determination of some macro and micro elements in grain of winter barley genotypes

N. Markova Ruzdik1*, Lj. Mihajlov1, V. Ilieva1, S. Ivanovska2, D. Valcheva3, B. Balabanova1, M.Ilievski1

1Faculty of Agriculture, “Goce Delchev” University, 2000 Shtip, Republic of Macedonia
2Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Food, “Ss. Cyril and Methodius” University, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia 3Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Republic of Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 27 January 2016; accepted for publication 1 March 2016)

Abstract. The objective of this study was to determine the content of some macro and micro elements in grain of winter barley genotypes, as well as, to identify the relationships between those elements and grain yield. The experiment was carried out during the period of 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 on the research fields of the Faculty of Agriculture, “Goce Delchev” – University, in two locations in the Republic of Macedonia, Ovche Pole and Strumica. The total 21 genotypes were used as an experimental material, of which 5 were Macedonian, 2 were Croatian, 2 were Serbian and 12 genotypes originate from Bulgaria. The trial was arranged as randomized complete block design with three replications for each genotype and location. Microwave digestion method was used to destroy the organic matrix to determine the content of Na, Mg, P, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn. The content of all elements was carried out by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS). During the period of study, the concentration of all examined elements was higher in genotypes grown in Strumica locality compare to Ovche Pole. In both locations, for all analyzed properties were found significant differences between examined barley genotypes. In Ovche Pole locality, the genotype Line 2 was the richer with macro and micro elements, while in Strumica locality the genotypes Izvor and NS 565 2R. Generally in both locations, barley genotypes were poor with macro and micro elements. In both locations, was not found significant correlation between content of macro and micro elements and grain yield. Using PCA analysis, two main components were extracted for the study conducted in Ovche Pole and three components in Strumica locality.

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Genotype-environment interaction and stability analysis for grain yield of winter barley in the conditions of North-East and South Bulgaria

M. Dimitrova-Doneva1*, D. Valcheva1, G. Mihova2, B. Dyulgerova1

1Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria
2Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, 9520 General Toshevo, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 30 October 2015; accepted for publication 8 February 2016)

Abstract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the grain yield of winter varieties of feed barley in different environments and to determine their stabilities. Grain yield performances were evaluated for three years (2008/2009, 2009/2010, 2010/2011) at three locations (Karnobat, General Toshevo and Sredets) in Bulgaria. The combined analysis of variance indicated that environmental factors were the most important sources affecting yield variation and these factors significantly explained 90.58% (4.40, 59.20 and 26.98% for year, location and their interactions) of the total sum of squares due to G + E + GE interaction. The average grain yield of the studied varieties of winter feed barley ranged from 5.16 t/ha (Veslets) to 5.46 t/ha (Radul). The genotypic responses to environmental changes were assessed using a linear regression coefficient (bi), the variance of the regression deviations (SDi), Lin and Binns cultivar superiority index (Pi) and GGE biplot analysis. The variety Radul was the best at combining yield stability and high mean grain yield based on most stability statistics. Variety Veslets was the most stable, but lower yielding than other studied varieties.

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