Effects of nitrogen doses on growth and some nutrient element uptake of sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.) hybrids

G. Ören1*, H. Çelik2

1Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Institute of Natural Sciences, Bursa Uludag University, Bursa, Turkey 2Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Bursa Uludag University, Bursa, Turkey

(Manuscript received 14 August 2018; accepted for publication 10 October 2018)

Abstract. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is known as one of the most important and preferred vegetable oil producing plants. In recent years, new cultivars with high oleic acid contents have been developed because of their health effects, extended frying and shelf life. On the other hand, nutrition of the plants is important for healthy growth, high yield, and oil quality and their nutrient needs may differ between the plant species and varieties. We aimed to determine the effects of increasing application doses of nitrogen (N) (0, 16, 32, 48, and 64 mg.kg-1 N) on growth and on some nutrient element uptake of four sunflower hybrids and compare the nutritional differences of linoleic (ESNovamis CL, and LG 5542 CL) and high-oleic (Oliva CL and ESGrafic CL) type sunflower hybrids in a greenhouse. The experiment was conducted in randomized factorial design with three replicates. Increasing doses of N effected the dry matter and nutrient uptake of sunflower hybrids significantly (p<0.01). Increasing doses of N elevated the dry weight, N, phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and boron (B) uptake of all tested sunflower hybrids. The increases were found maximum at 32 mg.kg-1 N dose. Significant differences were also established between the hybrids. Among the tested hybrids, ESGrafic CL a high oleic type sunflower has higher nutrient uptake capacity so much more nutrients might be supplied to this new generation sunflower hybrids according to the soil and plant analysis results.

Parthenogenetic responsiveness of sunflower hybrid combinations with expressed tolerance to herbicides

M. Drumeva*, P. Yankov

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Shipbuilding, Technical University Varna, 1 Studentska, 9010 Varna, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 6 March 2017; accepted for publication 3 July 2017)

Abstract. For accelerated development of fertility restorer lines with imidazolinone tolerance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), the gamma-induced parthenogenesis, which combines classical breeding approaches and in vitro techniques, was applied. As initial materials six imidazolinone-tolerant hybrid combinations (F1203, F1216, F1246, F1248, F1295 and F1332), obtained from Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, General Toshevo, were used. To initiate parthenogenetic development mixed pollen from different fertility restorer lines was applied. The mixed pollen was irradiated with a dose of 600 Gy. A total of 166 parthenogenetic immature embryos were obtained, and 84 young plants developed from them, 42 of the plants were fertile. Best parthenogenetic response, expressed as a number of embryos obtained, was observed by hybrid combination F1295, followed by hybrid combination F1332. The lowest parthenogenetic responsiveness is reported in hybrid combinations F1246 and F1248, where the total number of parthenogenetic embryos obtained was 5. In hybrid combinations F1295 and F1332, as well as in F1216, the method of gamma-induced parthenogenesis can be efficiently used for accelerated production of parental lines for heterosis breeding in sunflower. In hybrid combinations F1203, F1246 and F1248, which showed low parthenogenetic responsiveness, conventional methods for developing lines from these hybrids are recommended.

Characterization of the Bulgarian sunflower hybrid Valin

G. Georgiev*

Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, 9520 General Toshevo, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 1 July 2016; accepted for publication 26 August 2016)

Abstract. A male sterile two-linear sunflower hybrid was developed at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute – General Toshevo using the method of inter-linear hybridization. The mother component is line 10517 which possesses cytoplasmic male sterility, and the father component is line 10595R, a fertility restorer of branched type. Both parental forms have very good general and specific combining ability. Hybrid Valin is medium early, with vegetation period of 110 – 115 days, plant height 165 – 175 cm and head diameter 17 – 18 cm. The percent of kernel in seed is within the range of 65 – 73%. Seeds have absolute weight 50 – 55 g, and oil content in seed is 46 – 50%. The hybrid is resistant to lodging and moderately resistant to phoma and phomopsis. The resistance to downy mildew is as high as 95 % up to race 700, and the resistance to the parasite Orobanche is 100% (races A-F). In the breeding fields of DAI the hybrid went through three- year testing according to a scheme and growing technology approved for this crop. During the first two years of the control testing it exceeded the mean standard by seed yield with 11.0% and 14.4%, respectively. During the third year, hybrid Valin was above the mean standard with 10.9% by seed yield and with 6.6% by oil yield in a unified competitive varietal testing. The maximum yield obtained at DAI was 4483 kg/ha, and the maximum oil content was 50.1%. In 2007 and 2008 hybrid Valin went through official testing within the structure of the Executive Agency of Variety Testing, Field Inspection and Seed Control of Bulgaria. By the index seed yield, the exceeding of the mean standard was 23.6 % in the first year, and in the second the yield was with 1.4 % below the standard. Oil content was a little below the standard in both years. The aim of this investigation was to make as full as possible a characterization of the new registered sunflower hybrid Valin on the base of biological,phytopatological and economical indices.

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Investigation on the parthenogenetic response of sunflower lines and hybrids

M. Drumeva*, P. Yankov

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Marine Sciences and Ecology, Technical University Varna, 1 Studentska, 9010 Varna, Bulgaria

Abstract. When applying gamma-ionizing radiation for induction of parthenogenetic doubled haploidy, the female genotype exercises certain effect. The effect of the female may be expressed in lack of parthenogenetic response, in lower responsiveness or in specific selectiveness with regard to the type of parthenogenetic development. This investigation studied the parthenogenetic response of two lines and three hybrids of sunflower used as initial female material. Parthenogenetic reaction were registered in the tested hybrids, while parthenogenetic embryos were not obtained from some variants including lines, and, on the whole, lower responsiveness was determined. The effect of the female genotype was expressed in differences both in the responsiveness of the investigated lines and hybrids to induction of parthenogenetic development and in the variable reaction among the different lines and hybrids. The variations in the parthenogenetic response of the individual hybrids subjected to this investigation, which differed between themselves by their nuclear-cytoplasmic characteristics, were indicative for the dependence of the method on the genotypic and cytoplasmic specificity of the initial female material.

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Effect of foliar fertilization on sunflower (Helianhtus annuus L.)

G. Milev*

Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, 9520 General Toshevo, Bulgaria

Abstract. A field experiment was carried out with sunflower (Helianhtus annuss L.) hybrid San Luka during 2011 – 2013 in the trial field of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute under conditions of slightly leached chernozem soil (Luvic phaeozem). The aim of the investigation was to find out what was the effect of foliar fertilizers on the qualitative and quantitative indices of sunflower seeds as a part of determining the elements which formed the optimal agronomy practices for this hybrid. The trial was designed according to the method of long plots, with four replications of the variants. The variants were the following: 1) Check (untreated); 2) Foliar fertilization with Bo-La; 3) Foliar fertilization with PTS (potassium tyosulfate); 4) Foliar fertilization with High-Phos; 5) Foliar fertilization with Foliar Extra. As a result from the experiment carried out it was found that all tested fertilizers had positive effect on the seed yield amounting to 7.9 – 18.4%. The fertilizers Bo-La and High-Phos had highest effect on yield and 1000 seed weight. The index oil content in seed was influenced positively and significantly only by the fertilizers Bo-La and PTS. The increase of content was with 3.7%.

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Vokil – a new Bulgarian sunflower hybrid

G. Georgiev*, V. Encheva, N. Nenova, Y. Encheva, D. Valkova, P. Peevska, G. Georgiev

Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, 9520 General Toshevo, Bulgaria

Abstract. The new Bulgarian sunflower hybrid Vokil was developed at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute (DAI), General Toshevo, Bulgaria by the method of inter linear hybridization. It is a male fertile two-linear hybrid, a cross between line 217 as the mother component possessing cytoplasmic male sterility, and line 340 R, the father fertility restorer component. The two parental lines have very good general and specific combining ability. Hybrid Vokil is early maturing, with growing period of 122 – 125 days, plant height 150 – 160 cm, and head diameter 18 – 21 cm. Seed oil is of linoleic type, and its content is 49 – 51%. Thousand seed weight is 53 – 58 g, the number of seeds per inflorescence is 1180 – 1360, and their weight per plant is 81 – 91 g. The percent of kernel in seed is 72 – 75%. The duration of flowering is 11 – 13 days. The flowering times of the mother and father lines coincide after simultaneous planting, which is a great advantage in the production of hybrid seeds. The planting scheme is 10:2 (mother to father rows) allowing maximum utilization of the area. The father line is taller than the mother line, strongly branched and rich in pollen. Hybrid Vokil went through full approved testing in the breeding fields of DAI. The cross was under control testing for two years, then it was submitted to one-year competitive varietal trial. During the three years of testing the hybrid exceeded the mean standard with 104.9 – 114.9%, the maximum obtained yield being 4570 kg/ha, with oil yield 2344 kg/ha. Oil content in seed reached 51.7%. The official testing of hybrid Vokil was done in Romania for three years, at 10 locations. Averaged for the three years, the seed yield per ha exceeded the mean standard with 3%. Seed yield was within1943–4515kg/haatalllocationsduringthethreeyears,highestresultsaccordingtothisindexbeingobtained inthelastyearoftheofficialtesting– 3635 kg/ha. The mean seed yield from all locations during the entire testing was 3417 kg/ha. In 2013 hybrid Vokil was officially registered in Romania with certificate No 5428/07.08.2013 and was enlisted in the European catalogue of field and vegetable crop varieties.

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Parameters of “yield-irrigation depth” relationship for sunflower grown in the region of Plovdiv

A. Matev, R. Petrova
Abstract. The aim of this work is to establish parameters of relationship “yield-irrigation depth” for sunflower (grown in the region of Plovdiv), using different equations, as follows: y = ax2 + bx + c; y = y + 2 (1–y ) x – (1–y )x2; Y = 1 – (1 –Y )(1 – x)n. The source data used for the study are from a field experiment, carried 0 0 0 0 out in the region of Plovdiv (Bulgaria) on alluvial-meadow soil, with sunflower hybrid “PR-64-E-83”. Variants of the field experiment are: 1 – without irrigation; 2, 3 and 4 – irrigation with 50, 100 and 150% of the irrigation rate, determined by optimal variant (pre irrigation soil moisture 75% of FC for the layer 0 – 80 cm). With irrigation of 150% the irrigation depth moistens the layer 0 – 100 cm. If the maximum value of relative irrigation depth is 1.000, the relative irrigation depth of the other variants is: variant 1 – 0.000, variant 2 – 0.333 and variant 3 – 0.667. The results show that equation /3/ is the most suitable from a mathematical point of view and at the same time corresponding well with the biology of the crop. Variations of calculated yields using this equation to experimental yields are from – 1.6 to + 6.2%. The following parameters are established: n = 3.37 (from 2.34 to 4.67) and R = 0.997 (from 0.986 to 1.000). The representative type of equation /1/ is: Y = 0.586+1.136x–0.726×2 by R2 = 1. Variations of calculated yields using this equation to experimental yields are from – 2.2 to + 9.1%. Under the conditions of this work we calculated yield by a second degree equation: y = y + 2(1 – y )x–(1–y )x2 is always smaller than the experimental with variation from 0 0 0 0 to 16.3% and R=0.974. All established parameters of the relationship “yield – irrigation depth” in this paper are valid by variants with reduction of the irrigation rate compared to that calculated for wetting the layer 0 – 100 cm and when irrigations were scheduled by pre irrigation soil moisture 75% of FC for the soil layer 0 to 80 cm.

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Investigation on the resistance of doubled haploid sunflower lines to some biotic factors

M. Drumeva, P. Yankov, N. Nenova, P. Shindrova
Abstract. The investigation was carried out at the Laboratory facilities of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute (DAI), General Toshevo, Bulgaria during 2010 – 2012, and involved 15 doubled haploid fertility restorer sunflower lines (R-lines). The lines were obtained by the gamma-induced parthenogenesis method under greenhouse conditions in 2007 from three hybrid combinations developed at DAI. The resistance of the plants to downy mildew – one of the main pathogens on sunflower, and to the parasite broomrape was followed. The breeding materials were infected with downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii), race 731, and broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) under greenhouse conditions. The evaluation for resistance was done according to a scale from 0 % (susceptible genotype) to 100 % (resistant genotype). To determine the resistance to downy mildew, standard methodology was applied, adapted for work under the specific conditions of DAI; the methodology of Panchenko (1975) was used to determine the resistance to broomrape. Four lines demonstrated complex resistance to downy mildew and broomrape. Among the other eleven lines, three lines showed 100 % resistance to downy mildew race 731, and five lines were resistant to Orobanche (races A-F).

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Productivity of sunflower grown in a periodic water deficit conditions

R. Petrova, A. Matev, H. Kirchev, A. Sevov
Abstract. The aim of the conducted experiment is to determine the effect of irrigation canceling during the different phases of sunflower vegetation, and single irrigation done at a particular growth stage. The field experiment was conducted during 2006 – 2010 period in the experimental field of Agricultural University – Plovdiv on alluvial-meadow soil (former waterlogged). The following variants were tested: 1) no irrigation, 2) optimal irrigation /pre irrigation humidity at 75% of FC (Field Capacity) for the layer 0–80 cm /; 3), 4) and 5) respectively, with cancellation of the first, second and third irrigations, 6), 7) and 8) and made first, second and third irrigations, respectively. The results show that soil and climatic conditions in Plovdiv region are favorable for sunflower cultivation, while irrigation yields ranged from 1230 to 2070 kg/ha. Optimization of soil moisture in middle and middle dry years needs 2–3 irrigations, depending on rainfall distribution and amount of irrigation rate and humidity 75% of FC is 80 mm. At optimal irrigation yield ranges from 2270 to 4070 kg/ha, and compared to nonirrigated sunflower the additional yield is 46 to 97%. Revocation of one watering does not cause significant yield losses, especially if it happens in the second half of the reproductive period. Losses are more significant in the presence of water deficit during flowering and growth of the head. These have ranged from 4 to 17% (mean 11%). Average for the experimental period the repeal of irrigation in buttoning or during pouring of the seed leads to losses in yield below 10%. The most effective is watering during flowering and head growth, and the additional yield ranges from 14 to 54% (mean 32.5%). At this watering regime productivity of irrigation is high – 6.86 kg/ha an additional yield from each 1 mm irrigation water.

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Evapotranspiration of sunflower crops depending on irrigation

A. Matev, R. Petrova, H. Kirchev

Abstract. The aim of the study is to analyze the influence of irrigation regime on evapotranspiration (ET) of sunflower, in terms of total and average daily values, its effectiveness in terms of yield, and the peculiarities of its formation. The field experiment was conducted in the region of Plovdiv, with hybrid PR-64-E-83. The variants of the study are: without irrigation, optimal irrigation with initial humidity at 75% of FC for the layer 0–80 cm and irrigation with 50% and 150 % of irrigation rate, respectively. Seasonal evapotranspiration of sunflower varies from 274 to 342 mm. Irrigation with 50% of the optimal irrigation depth causes ET increasing with an average of 33.1% (from 26.1 to 37.4%). The optimally irrigated sunflower uses from 475 to 559 mm. Increase of ET as compared with the rainfed sunflower is an average of 67%. In case of irrigation with 150% of the irrigation depth ET increases with extra 2.5 – 26.7% (an average of 13.5%). ET of sunflower was formed in the following way for the conditions of the experiment: In rain-fed conditions rainfalls share 49 – 82% and water supply – from 18 to 51% of ET. By irrigation with 50% of rate the sharing of rainfalls is 36-64%, for water supply is 17-33% and irrigation depth – 14-31%. By optimum irrigation sharing is respectively 28-56%, 16-23% and 25-49%. The maximum value of daily ET for rainfed sunflower varying from 3.3 to 5.6 mm. Irrigation with norm of 50% increases values of ET to 5.2 – 6.1 mm. The maximal value of this regime of irrigation is most often in the flowering period. In case of optimal irrigation the maximal values of daily ET will remain the same usually to the beginning of phase „seeds fill”, and the values are between 6 and 7 mm.

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