Productivity and feed quality of Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf.) and sweet sorghum forms

S. Enchev*

Agricultural Institute, 3 Simeon Veliki, 9700 Shumen, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 24 August 2020; accepted for publication 22 February 2021)

Abstract. During the period 2017-2018, the feed quality and productivity of three Sudan grass varieties – Endje 1, Vercors and Super Sweet, one stabilized Sudan grass population – SWT, local sweet sorghum – „Zaharna metla“ population and the sweet sorghum cultivar “Shumensko sladko” were researched in Agricultural Institute – Shumen. Green mass (t/ha), dry matter (%) and dry mass production (%) as well as basic nutritional characteristics by the two swaths of the tested cultivars in brooming phase were controlled. It was found that the sweet sorghum cultivar “Shumensko sladko” gave the highest amount of green mass – 59.5 t/ha by two swaths, and the dry mass yield was the highest from the cultivar Endje 1 – 20.8 t/ha. In terms of chemical composition, the greatest variation was demonstrated in phosphorus content (0.369-0.696%, CV=27.3%), followed by crude fat (1.28-2.39%, CV=26.8%), Ca (0.889-1.572%, CV=21.8%), crude protein (6.05-9.00%, CV=14.6%), nitrogen free extracts (42.05-51.20%, CV=7.6%), crude fiber (32.64-39.26%, CV=6.1%) and mineral substances (8.17-9.61%, CV=5.9%). It can be summarized that all hybrids provide quality hay, however the Bulgarian cultivars Endje 1 and “Shumensko sladko” showed the best nutritional value – compared to Super Sweet, Vercors, SWT and “Zaharna metla”.

Correlations between grain yield and related traits in winter wheat under multi-environmental traits

  1. Tsenov1*, T. Gubatov1, I. Yanchev2

 

1Department of Wheat Breeding and Technology, Agronom Breeding Company, 9300 Dobrich, Bulgaria

2Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Agronomy, Agricultural University, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 7 August 2020; accepted for publication 29 October 2020)

Abstract. In a series of field trials, a database of quantitative traits associated with winter wheat grain yield has been collected. The aim of the present study is to determine the relationships between the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) traits of productivity in environments causing the maximum possible variation of each of the traits. In order to determine the correlations between the quantitative characters studied, all possible statistical methods have been applied (regression analysis, PCA, Multiple Correspondence analysis), which complement each other. It was found that the nature of the correlations between traits depends to a large extent on the methods for their evaluation. There are high and significant correlations between grain yields and the grain number per spike (weight of grain per spike and number of grains per m2) even under strong genotype by environment interaction of all the traits in trails. The established results are related to possible options for increasing winter wheat grain yield by breeding.

Statistical analysis of genetic diversity using faba bean landraces database

N. Velcheva*, S. Petrova

Agricultural Academy, Institute of Plant Genetic Resources K. Malkov, 2 Druzhba Str., 4122 Sadovo, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 20 May 2020; accepted for publication 24 July 2020)

Abstract. Evaluation of genetic diversity among landraces could be an invaluable aid related to the sustainable use of ex situ collections. Statistical methods are currently available for analysis of databases from investigation of stored germplasm. Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a self-pollinating with high percentage of foreign pollination legume crop with a great importance for food and forage due to its high protein content as well as the important role in soil fertility and nitrogen fixation. The local populations are well adapted to specific agro-climatic conditions in the growing areas and are a rich initial material for the breeding programs. The purpose of this study is to establish the genetic diversity of 21 Bulgarian faba bean landraces by important traits in order to review the current potential of conserved germplasm for its sustainable use. All genotypes, included in the study, are collected from expeditions in the country, recorded in the National Register for Plant Genetic Resources and long term stored at the National Genebank. They are characterized according to the International Faba Bean Descriptors. The cluster analysis results show a high genetic diversity in the collection and the variability of each studied trait is presented. The factor analysis, which complements the cluster analysis, gives a reason to group the genotypes with their features into groups that have a breeding value. Genetic diversity in the studied collection has been identified and some of the landraces could be included in future breeding programs.

Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): A recent threat and future management strategy in Nepal

S. Gahatraj1*, S. Tiwari1,2, S. Sharma3, L. Kafle4

1Faculty of Agriculture, Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur-44209, Chitwan, Nepal
2Bio-Protection Research Centre, Lincoln University, P.O.Box 85084, Lincoln-7647, New Zealand
3Entomology Division, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Khumaltar-44700, Nepal
4National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan

(Manuscript received 31 March 2020; accepted for publication 10 May 2020)

Abstract. Fall Armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, is an invasive pest of maize including other cultivated crops such as rice, wheat, and many other vegetables. This invasive species was initially noticed in North-America and later reported in many countries of Africa in early 2016. In South Asia, this has been reported for the first time in India followed by Srilanka in 2018 and Bangladesh, China, Taiwan and Nepal in 2019. It is polyphagous in nature and damage has been reported in more than 80 plant species. The loss has to lead up to 50-80% in maize in severe situation. FAW is a distant flyer and can fly more than 100 km in a night and spread well in crop fields. As this pest is already invasive in many states of India and the likelihood of entry and spreading in Nepal is higher because of the open border between the countries and flexible government quarantine policy. The great socio-economic loss has been forecasted once this pest has received invasive status in Nepal. Recently, this crop has been confirmed by Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC) in Gaidakot area of Nawalpur district, Nepal and has been noticed in almost all parts of Nepal such as Sidhuli, Chitwan, Nawalparasi, Tanahun and Rupendehi districts. However, this information has not been endorsed by Nepal Plant Protection Office (NPPO), an official invasive species endorsing organization in Nepal. This species is spreading rapidly in maize growing areas and significant losses have been reported in maize crop by the farmers. The regular scouting, surveillance, and monitoring can be suggested to evaluate the pest status in the crop field. Habitat manipulation with the deployment of deterring crops ‘push’ such as desmodium (Desmodium uncinatum) and pest-attracting crop ‘pull’ such as Napier (Pennisetum purpureum) and Sudan grass (Sorghum vulgare sudanense) is suggested in a ‘push-pull strategy’, the most popular and successful method of FAW management in the maize field. Field sanitation, and conserving pest’s natural enemies are other integrated approaches. However, in a commercial maize field, a group of ‘soft’ and selective chemicals have been suggested for immediate control of this pest. This review compiled the recent informations available on FAW and is useful for farmers, researchers and policy makers to draw a roadmap for the future FAW management in Nepal.