Boar taint and meat quality characteristics of entire male and castrated male pigs


I.G. Penchev

Department of Morphology, Physiology and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 22 February 2019; accepted for publication 25 April 2019)


Abstract. The aim of the present research was to study the chemical composition, technological traits and intensity of boar taint of meat in entire male (EM) and surgically castrated male (CM) pigs. The study included 46 male pigs, cross F1 (Landrace x Danube White), fattened to average live weight 90 kg. In terms of chemical composition, the higher water and lipid content of the meat of entire male pigs, compared to the meat of surgically castrated male pigs was not statistically significant. A significant difference in the meat’s technological traits – pH values, water-holding capacity, cooking losses and tenderness between the two groups of male animals ware not found. The influence of the factor “castration” was reported in trait marbling of meat (p<0.001). There were statistically significant differences in the values of L*, b* and Hue angle, defining the color characteristics of the meat.

Effect of dietary phytoextracts supplementation on the chemical composition and fatty acid profile of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss w.), cultivated in recirculation system

  1. Georgieva, G. Zhelyazkov, Y. Staykov, D. Georgiev


Department of Biology and Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6014 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria


DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.041

(Manuscript received 7 June 2018; accepted for publication 28 August 2018)


Abstract. The present research aimed to examine the effect of dietary phytoextracts supplementation on the chemical composition and fatty acid profile in the meat of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.), cultivated in a recirculation system. The fish were divided into 6 groups: one control (C) and five experimental groups in the food of which phytoextracts of curcumin (EC), paprika (EP), thyme (ET), oregano (EO) and garlic (EG) were added. The inclusion of phytoextracts had no significant effect on growth parameters of fish from EC, EP, ET, EO and EG groups (P>0.05). No statistical differences on water content, protein and lipids were observed in the meat of fish from the control and the experimental groups (P>0.05). Statistically significantly higher value of the dry matter was established in ET group in comparson with C, EC, EP, EO and EG groups (P≤0.001). The values of ash were significantly lower in fish from all experimental groups compared to the control group. The inclusion of phytoextracts did not affect the fatty acid profile of fish from EP, EO and EG groups (P>0.05). Exceptions are EC and ET groups, which had the lowest value of C18:3n-3 α-linolenic compared to those from the control group (P≤0.05, P≤0.001).

Variation in the chemical composition and physical characteristics of grain from winter barley varieties

B. Dyulgerova*, N. Dyulgerov, D. Dimova

Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 4 July 2017; accepted for publication 28 August 2017)

Abstract. The aim of the study was to evaluate the range of variation in chemical composition and in physical parameters of grain associated with feed quality of barley under the conditions of Southeast Bulgaria. A set of 21 winter six-rowed barley varieties from different geographic origins were investigated. The study was conducted in the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat, during the period 2013/2014 – 2014/2015. Grain samples of the studied varieties were analysed for crude protein, lysine, starch, crude fat, crude ash, crude fiber, hectoliter weight and 1000 grains weight. The coefficient of variation was the highest in crude fat (21.52%) followed by lysine (9.52%). Low variation among varieties was found in nitrogen-free extract (CV=1.56%) and hectoliter weight (CV=2.77%). Correlations of crude protein with lysine, starch and crude fiber were negative. Starch content was positively associated with crude fat and hectoliter weight. Significant negative correlation of nitrogen-free extract with crude fat and crude fiber was found. Differences in chemical composition and physical parameters of grain indicated that the studied varieties can provide a source of germplasm for breeding winter barley varieties with improved feed quality.

Chemical composition and technological characteristics of wines from red grape varieties, selected in Bulgaria

V. Haygarov1, T. Yoncheva1, Z. Nakov2, M. Ivanov2, D. Dimitrov1*

1Department of Enology and Chemistry, Institute of Viticulture and Enology, 1 Kala Tepe str., 5800 Pleven, Bulgaria 2Department of Cultivars and Cultivar Maintenance, Institute of Viticulture and Enology, 1 Kala Tepe str., 5800 Pleven, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 20 May 2016; accepted for publication 5 February 2017)

Abstract. Chemical analysis of grapes and technological characterization of wines from red varieties Storgoziya, Kaylashky rubin, Trapezitza, Rubin and Bouquet, created by the method of intraspecific and interspecific hybridization at the Institute of Viticulture and Enology – Pleven, Bulgaria were made. The technological maturity of the grapes as raw material for producing quality red wines was determined. Rubin variety was with the highest sugar content – 23.10±0.73 %, titratable acids – 6.18±0.34 g/dm3 and pH 3.40±0.71. The other varieties were with optimal condition for the production of red wines in terms of sugars and titratable acids. The chemical composition and organoleptic characteristics of the experimental wine samples were established. The ethyl alcohol content in the produced wines was in the range from 12.33±0.23 vol. % (Bouquet) to 13.31±0.34 vol. % (Kaylashky rubin). The content of titratable acids was in the range of 5.33±0.43 g/dm3 (Trapezitza) up to 6.88±0.21 g/dm3 (Kaylashky rubin). There were no significant differences in the analyzed indicators and taste evaluation between experimental wines and wine of Vitis vinifera – Pinot noir grape variety used as control sample.

Biochemical and chemical investigations of pikeperch fingerlings (Sander Lucioperca L.) after wintering

A. Ivanova*, R. Atanasova

Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture, 248 Vasil Levski, 4003 Plovdiv, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 14 September 2016; accepted for publication 13 October 2016)

Abstract. The purpose of the present study was to investigate some basic biochemical and chemical parameters of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca L.) yearlings reared in ponds after wintering. The investigation has been carried out in the Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Plovdiv. The fish included in the study were randomly selected from one pond, with area of 0.40 ha. Blood samples were collected from 10 pikeperches with average weight from 80 to 100 g. Blood biochemical parameters were individually analysed. For hemoglobin determination, blood was anticoagulated with sodium citrate. Samples for body tissue analysis (without the head and viscera) were collected from 4 fish, autoclaved and used for analysis of water content, % (drying at 105 оС, 24 h; Bulgarian State Standard – SR ISO 5984), protein content, % (Kjeldahl method, Bulgarian State Standard – SR ISO 5983 semi-automated DK 6 digester unit and UDK 132 distillation system, Velp Scientifica), fats (%) by the method of Smidt-Boudzynski Ratzlaff and ash (%) by burning in a muffle furnace at 550 oС, BSS – SR ISO 6496. The average blood serum total protein was 66.1±0.12 g.l-1, blood glucose concentration was 92.8±3.42 mg.100 ml-1 (5.15 mmol.l-1) and average hemoglobin content was 44.7±0.33 g.l-1. The average protein content in analysed fish samples was 16.65±0.23 %. Protein content was the highest among studied dry matter components, followed by the ash (1.97±0.06 %) and fat content (0.84±0.03 %). The levels of blood serum total protein, blood glucose and hemoglobin content as well as body composition parameters – water, protein, fat and ash of pikeperch fingerlings (Sander lucioperca L.) after wintering reflect the specific equilibrium of plastic and energy substances after the winter period, with no deviations from the reference ranges.

Some results of evaluation of new-introduced apricot cultivars under conditions of Plovdiv region

V. Bozhkova*, M. Nesheva

Fruit Growing Institute, 4004 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 15 May 2016; accepted for publication 24 August 2016)

Abstract.ApricotisnottypicalspeciesforSouthCentralRegionofBulgaria,wherethePlovdivregionoccupiesalargepart oftheterritory,butlast5yearsthe area and production remain stable. In this study, are presented the first results of investigation on seven new introduced apricot cultivars ‘Bergecot’, ‘Flavor cot’, ‘Jenny cot’, ‘Lady cot’, ‘Perle cot’, ‘Sweet cot’ and ‘Tom cot’, carried out at the Fruit Growing Institute in Plovdiv. The investigation included phelogical data, fruit dimensions, chemical composition and sensory evaluation of the fruits. The studied cultivars more often entered the stage of flowering after second part of March and the differences between them were insignificant – one or two days. Among the investigated cultivars four of them ripened in the third decade of June, ‘Lady cot’ ripened in the beginning of July, ‘Bergecot’ in the end of July and ‘Jenny cot’ in the first half of August. The largest fruits had cultivar ‘Lady cot’ – 57.86 g, andthesmallestone’Flavorcot’–37.64g.Thetotalsolublesolids(TSS)contentinthepresentstudyvariedfrom13.4°Brixin’Perlecot’to23.3°Brix in’Jeny cot’ cultivar. The highest vitamin C content was found in ‘Bergecot’ – 29.40 mg/100 g and it is statistically proved. According to the final evaluation the cultivars ‘Bergecot’ and ‘Sweet cot’ have exellent sensory characteristics and the other 5 cultivars are classified in the group of first class. According to the obtained data, all evaluated cultivars in this study are suitable for growing under the conditions of Plovdiv region. The most attractive and quality fruits have cultivars ‘Lady cot’, ‘Perle cot’, ‘Bergecot’ and ‘Sweet cot’.


Performance of eleven plum cultivars under agroclimatic conditions of Plovdiv region, Bulgaria

V. Bozhkova*, P. Savov

Fruit Growing Institute, 4004 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 13 May 2016; accepted for publication 8 June 2016)

Abstract. Plum is a traditional fruit crop in Bulgaria. The South Central Region represents 22.2% of the total area occupied with plum trees. In this study the results of a four years’ investigation on ten plum cultivars carried out at the Fruit Growing Institute in Plovdiv are presented. Stanley was used as a standard. The observed phenological characteristics included flowering and fruit ripening. The cultivars Tophit plus and Toptaste are the earliest flowering, whereas Topstar plus is the latest one. Fruits of Topfirst cultivar ripen at the beginning of July, those of Top and Tophit plus in September and all the rest in August. According to biometrical analyses, fruit weight of Topgigant plus and Tophit plus is over 60g. The total soluble solid content in the studied cultivars varies from 15.7% in Top cultivar to 24.75% in Toptaste. Yield was determined and expressed in kg per tree. Over 30 kg per tree was harvested from the cultivars Stanley, Jojo, Topgigant plus and Tophit plus. The lowest yield was obtained from the cultivars Top, Topfive and Toptaste. In 2012, the percentage of flower buds destroyed by frost was evaluated. The lowest degree of damages was reported in the cultivars Tophit plus, Topgigant plus and Mirabelle de Nancy (below 10%), and the greatest damages in Toptaste (51%). According to the obtained results, the most suitable plum cultivars recommended to be grown in Plovdiv region, are Jojo, Topgigant plus and Tophit plus, as well as the cultivar Bellamira from the group of Mirabelle plum.


Chemical composition, nutritive value, energy yield and feed units of the winter pea grain grown after different predecessors using conventional and organic production

M. Gerdgikova, M. Videva, D. Pavlov, A. Dobreva

Abstract. During 2005-2007 the effect of two cereal varieties: (i) common wheat and (ii) Triticale, as predecessors and the choice of production methodology on the chemical composition, nutritional value, energy yield and feed units of the grain of winter pea variety “Mir” was investigated. The study was conducted at Trakia university, Stara Zagora in conditions of organic and conventional production. It was found that neither the predecessor nor the agricultural method have significant effect on the chemical composition and content of GE, ME, FUM and FUG in the grain of winter pea. Yields of GE, ME, FUM and FUG were higher in conventional agriculture and after wheat as predecessor. The most influential factor on these parameters is the agricultural method, seconded by the influence of climatic conditions. The predecessor has the lowest effect on the parameters observed. The energy yield and feed units correlates well with the total amount of rainfall during the growing season and rainfall during the month of February.


Sensory and nutritive quality of fermented dry sausages produced in industrial conditions

A. Kuzelov, O. Savinok, T. Angelkova, M. Mladenov

Abstract. The paper investigates the sensory and nutritional quality of two groups of dry sausage produced in industrial conditions. The first group was produced with the addition of the nitrite salt and glucono delta lactone (GDL) and fibbers and another group with the addition of nitrite salt starter culture. Analysis of the results obtained in this study it was found that better quality sensory had tea sausage produced with the addition of a GDL. As for the quality nutritive no statistically significant differences with both groups of sausages.


Slaughtering analysis and chemical composition of rabbits – hybrids

A.Kuzelov, E. Atanasova, T. Angelkova

Abstract. This study shows the results from examining the portion of the main parts and internal organs in the carcass of rabbits. A total of 22 rabbits of mixed breed (Californian and New Zealand rabbits) were examined of which 11 male, 11 female. The average live mass of the rabbits was 2 462 ± 0,15 g male and 2 472 ± 0,17 g female. Carcass with head in male animals averaged 1,373 ± 0,12 kg and female animals 1,382 ± 0,15 kg. Regarding the main categories of meat the largest participation in the carcass showed the pelvic-thigh part while the smallest showed the neck-breast part. The female rabbits achieved higher scores of mass in the pelvic-thigh part for 30 g and 26 g in the neck-breast part.The chemical composition of meat shows that in male animals contain more water, fat, protein and mineral substances.