Composition of meat in La Belle and White Plymouth Rock chickens, slaughtered at different age

Т. Popova*, E. Petkov, M. Ignatova

Institute of Animal Science, 2232 Kostinbrod, Bulgaria
(Manuscript received 16 May 2015; accepted for publication 8 June 2016)

Abstract. An experiment with two lines of chickens – synthetic line La Belle and White Plymouth Rock was carried out in the Institute of Animal Science, Kostinbrod to assess the meat quality in regards to chemical composition and the fatty acid profile at the age of 9 and 18 weeks. The age affected the lipid content which decreased significantly in breast (p<0.05) and thighs (p<0.01) in the older chickens of both lines. The content of protein and moisture in breast differed between the lines (p<0.05), showing higher protein and lower moisture in White Plymouth Rock chickens, while in the thigh muscles the line and age significantly interacted (P<0.001) in regards to these traits. Interactions between the two factors (p<0.01) was observed for the ash content in the breast, whereas in the thighs it tended to decrease with the age in both lines. The fatty acid composition of the meat was influenced mainly by the age of the chickens. The total content of the saturated fatty acids was increased in the thighs of the older birds (p<0.01), while the proportion of the monounsaturated fatty acids was decreased in the breast (p<0.01) and thighs (p<0.001) with advancing age of the chickens. The opposite was observed for the content of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in the breast, which increased at higher age of slaughter (p<0.001). In thigh meat, the changes of the polyunsaturated fatty acids induced by age followed the same pattern, however significant interaction with the line was observed (p<0.05). The cholesterol content in the breast differed significantly between the two lines (p<0.05) and reduced with age (p<0.001). In the thighs considerable decrease (p<0.001) of the cholesterol was observed in La Belle birds.

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Fatty acid composition of backfat during frozen storage in pigs fed vitamin E supplemented diet

T. Popova*

Institute of Animal Science, 2232 Kostinbrod, Bulgaria

Abstract.The changesinthefattyacidcompositionofthebackfatwerestudiedin ♀Younax ♂Pietrain pigs.Theanimalsweredividedintwogroups(vitaminE supplemented and control) and after slaughter, samples of the inner and outer backfat layers were taken, frozen and stored for a period of 6 months. Fatty acid composition was analysed in fresh backfat samples and after frozen storage of 3 and 6 months. The content of the major saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids differed significantly between the two layers of the backfat in both groups. In the inner layer we observed significantly higher proportion of C16:0 (P<0.01) and C18:0 (P<0.001) while C18:1 had higher content in the outer backfat layer (P<0.001). The differences were not dependent on the presence of vitamin E in the diet, suggesting no effect of the antioxidant on the metabolism of the fatty acids of the two backfat layers. The total amount of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) was increased (P<0.001), higher values of UFA/SFA (P<0.001) and lower of the atherogenic (AI) and thrombogenic (TI) indices (P<0.001) were observed in the outer backfat layer in both groups. The duration of frozen storage affected significantly the content of the individual and total fatty acids, as the changes were observed mostly between the 3rd and 6th month of frozen storage. In both groups the content of C16:0 and the total saturated fatty acids (SFA) decreased while the content of the total amount of UFA increased by the end of the 6th month. In the group supplemented vitamin E, the content of C16:1 significantly decreased (P<0.01) and that of C18:1 significantly increased (P<0.01) by the 6th month of storage. The atherogenic and thrombogenic indices followed the same pattern, showing the lowest values at the 6th month of frozen storage in both groups, thus indicating no negative influence on the duration of storage on the backfat.

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Fatty acids profile, atherogenic and thrombogenic health indices of white brined cheese made from buffalo milk

N. Naydenova*, I. Kaishev, T. Iliev, G. Mihaylova

Department of Dairy Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

Abstract. The present investigation had the objective to study the fatty acids profile and the related health lipid indices of buffalo cheese in order to add information on its nutritional quality. Two distinct indices were investigated – atherogenic and thrombogenic. These indices take into account the different effects that single fatty acids might have on human health. The study was performed with buffalo milk, obtained from purebred Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes from II lactation, reared in the herd of the private farm in Dimitrievo village. The amount of saturated fatty acids in raw milk diminished in the processing and ripening ofcheeseby5%. Theamountofunsaturatedfattyacidsincreasedduringripeningbythesamepercentinproportiontothedecreaseofsaturatedfattyacids. The biggest change is in the content of monounsaturated fatty acids in ripened cheese which increased by 4.35% from raw milk. Omega 6/omega 3 varies from 4:1 for raw milk to 7.9:1 for white brined cheese, which is within the range of the values for healthy nutrition. The values of the atherogenic index of buffalo milk change in the range 2.72 for raw milk to 2.16 for matured cheese. The same tendency is observed for the thrombogenic index – it decreased during ripening from 1.74 for raw milk to 1.2 for matured cheese. The values of the received lipid indices, calculated on the basis of single fatty acids and fatty acid groups – saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated, showing the degree of preventive effect regarding the risk of cardiovascular disease,have a low risk factor for human health.

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Seasonal changes in fatty acid composition and fat soluble vitamins content of grass carp and common carp

Abstract. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the seasonal changes in total lipids and fatty acid (FA) composition, and fat soluble vitamins (A, D3, E) content in the edible tissue of two freshwater fish species – grass carp and common carp. The FA and vitamins contents of the investigated fish species showed significant seasonal changes. All spring samples were characterized by lower saturated fatty acid (SFA) levels (from 35.9% to 36.0%) and higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (from 14.6% up to 30.1%), including the essential omega 3 PUFA compared to the autumn specimens. The autumn carp and grass carp showed significant decrease of the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) levels. All autumn samples showed lower PUFA (from 13.3% to 30.0%) values, due to reduction of linoleic acid (C 18:2 n6) levels in carp and grass carp. PUFA/SFA and n-3/n-6 ratios decreased in all fish species in the autumn season. The fat soluble vitamins content of the analyzed species in the two seasons were in the ranges: from 8.56±0.68μg/100g to 24.44±5.8 μg.100g-1 wet weight (ww) for all-trans-retinol; from 5.41±0.33 μg.100g-1ww to 30.87±5.1 μg.100g-1ww cholecalciferol and from 1051.8±38.470 μg.100g-1ww to 3133.1± 57.8 μg.100g-1ww α-tocopherol, respectively. All analyzed cyprinid species in both seasons are good sources of fat soluble vitamins and PUFAs, which makes them a desirable part of the human diet.

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Fatty acids and lipid indices of buffalo milk yogurt

N. Naydenova, T. Iliev, G. Mihaylova
Abstract. The present investigation had the objective to study the changes in the atherogenic index and the lipid preventive score as nutrition indicators for assessment of the risk of cardio-vascular diseases. The study was performed with buffalo milk, obtained from purebred Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes from II lactation, reared in the herd of the private farm in Dimitrievo village. The content of saturated fatty acids in buffalo yogurt is higher than in raw milk at the expense of unsaturated fatty acids. Omega-6/omega-3 ratio varies from 3.58 for yogurt to 4.30 for raw milk, which is within the range of the optimal values for healthy nutrition. The atherogenic index was calculated on the obtained values for the lauric (C12:0), myristic (C14:0) and palmitic (C16:0) acids and the unsaturated fatty acids. The obtained data for the raw milk and yoghurt are 2.68 and 3.24, respectively. The values of lipid preventive score calculated on the basis of fat content and fatty acid groups – saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated, showing the degree of preventive effect regarding the risk of cardiovascular disease, are 12.42 for raw milk and 14.52 for the produced yogurt, respectively.
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Comparative studies on the gross composition of White brined cheese and its imitations, marketed in the town of Stara Zagora

N. Naydenova, T. Iliev, G. Mihaylova, S. Atanasova
Abstract. The gross chemical composition of a total of 39 white brined cheese samples and 13 of its imitation products were studied during March 2009–November 2011. Extreme variability of the basic quality parameters of the white brined cheese marketed in the town of Stara Zagora has been established. Dry matter, fat in dry matter and moisture in the non-fatty substance vary in large levels within the range 33.79÷46.18 %, 47.35÷61.24 and 70.83÷83.18%, respectively for all 24 studied unpacked market cheese samples. Fat to protein ratio in these samples was in the range 1.09÷1.82. The values of DM, FDM and MNS in packed market white brined cheese samples were in the range 35.37÷49.87%; 48.38÷54.72 and 68.67÷78.58%. Fat to protein ratio in these samples was in the range 1.18÷1.48. The ripening index of market packed white brined cheese samples varies widely from 15.12 to 19.00%. Dairy factory imitation palm oil cheeses demonstrate significantly lower short-chain fatty acid (С4:0÷С10:0) levels. The very low values for this group of fatty acids in the imitation cheese demonstrated great substitution of the milk fat and large quantity of the palmitic (С16:0; 44.09÷44.25%) and stearic (С16:0; 38.95÷40.97%) fatty acids in comparison to natural white brined cheeses – 25.43÷29.86% and 6.45÷5.77%, respectively. Fat to protein ratio in the cheese imitation samples was in the range 2.05÷3.90.

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Fatty acid composition of yogurt supplemented with walnut extract

S. Boycheva, N. Naydenova, G. Mihaylova, T. Dimitrov, D. Pavlov
Abstract. The present study aimed to monitor the changes in fatty acid composition of yogurt supplemented with ground walnut extract and stored over 10 days. Fatty acid content of raw and pasteurized milk, of 24-hour yogurt and 10-day yogurt (stored at 4oC) was assayed. Total saturated fatty acid content of experimental samples of milk was lower while that of unsaturated fatty acids was higher as compared to control milk, 24-hour and 10-day yogurt samples. Assayed fatty acids exhibited higher differences between control and experimental samples with regard to polyunsaturated (С18:2 and С18:3) fatty acids. The total saturated fatty acid content in pasteurized milk with walnut extract decreased by 11.2% compared to raw milk, while remaining unaltered in natural pasteurized milk. Pasteurized milk with walnuts exhibited higher polyunsaturated fatty acid content – 2.6 times vs natural and almost 3 times higher than raw milk. Yogurt containing walnut extract contained by 19.25% more unsaturated fatty acids and by 2.3 times more polyunsaturated fatty acids as compared to natural yogurt. During storage of produced yogurt for 10 days, the amount of С18:3 decreased by 46.8% in the yogurt containing walnut extract and by 34.4% in natural yogurt.

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Comparative studies on the fatty acid composition of White brined cheese, marketed in the town of Stara Zagora

The study was carried out in March-April 2009. Ten cheese samples representing different cheese batches were sampled to compositional and fatty acid profile analysis. The palm oil and four white-brined cheeses (2 representing palm oil cheese batches and 2 – free of palm oil cheese batches) were purchased from a commercial manufacturer. Other six cheeses were purchased from the market where they were offered as “free of vegetable oil”. An extremely high level of saturated (73.55÷75.78%) fatty acids is established for 3 cheese batches due mainly to the higher amount of lauric (34.86÷36.97%), or palmitic acid (30.24÷34.00%). The high levels of the hypercholesterolemic fatty acids of the dairy factory palm oil cheeses and four market batches in combination with the very low or very high n-6/n-3 fatty ratios in these products pose a risk to consumer health. Only one of the all six market cheeses offered as “free of vegetable oil” dairy products does not cause suspicion of added vegetable fat or unfair sale to the customers.

Comparative studies on the fatty acid composition of White brined cheese, marketed in the town of Stara Zagora

N. Naydenova, K. Davidova, T. Iliev, G. Mihaylova

Clean wool colour and fatty acid content of semi fine wool

D. Pamukova

The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the clean wool colour and the fatty acid composition of semi fine wool. The
investigation was performed on 93 individual samples (from the shoulder, the back and the thigh) of 31 fleeces obtained from industrial batches of semi fine wool originating from Bulgaria, The Republic of Macedonia and The Netherlands. For shoulder, back and leg samples, the greasy wool colour, the staple length and the dirt percentage were determined. For shoulder samples, the clean wool colour, the total lipids in wool grease and its fatty acid composition were additionally determined. The lowest colour index, measured on full-length staple, was that of Dutch wool (34.86). Similar colour index was obtained for Bulgarian (50.43) and Macedonian (51.57) wool batches. After removal of the dirty area, Dutch wool exhibited the lowest colour index again (29.86), followed by Macedonian (38.54) and Bulgarian (42.51) samples. The greasy wool colour (except for yellow-coloured wool) could not be used as a reliable criterion for prediction of clean wool colour.

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