Influence of basic agrotechnical activities on the productivity and yield of Triticum monococcum L.

S. Stamatov*, K. Uzundzhalieva, E. Valchinova, G. Desheva, P. Chavdarov, B. Kyosev, T. Cholakov, R. Ruseva, N. Velcheva

Institute of Plant genetic Resources „Konstantin Malkov”, 2 Druzhba, 4122 Sadovo, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 7 June 2017; accepted for publication 25 August 2017)

Abstract. The study was conducted during the period 2014 – 2016 in the experimental field of Institute of Plant Genetic Resources, Sadovo. The influence of the period of sowing, the predecessor and the fertilization on the elements of productivity and grain yield per hectare in einkorn wheat were studied. It was established that the structural elements of productivity – number of productive tillers, length of the spike, number of spikelets per spike, mass of central spike, number of grains in central spike, weight of the grains from the central spike are with the highest values in plants grown after predecessor peas, sown in autumn and fertilized with extra nitrogen. With least developed productive capabilities are the plant variants sown in spring after sunflower and without additional fertilization with nitrogen. With proved the biggest impact on grain yield per hectare is the date of sowing. The sources of variation: predecessor and combined effect of factors predecessor x fertilization show equal share of influence on the productivity of einkorn. The results from the study give science-based information on the most favorable time of sowing, fertilizing and predecessor in einkorn.

Energy productivity, fertilization rate and profitability of wheat production after various predecessors II. Profitability of wheat production

Z. Uhr1*, Е. Vasileva2

1Institute of Plant Genetic Resources, 2 Druzhba, 4122 Sadovo, Bulgaria
2University of Agribusiness and Rural Development, 78 Dunav, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 27 July 2015; accepted for publication 13 October 2015)

Abstract. In the course of our study on the adaptation of modern genotypes common winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) to the requirements of sustainable agriculture data were received concerning the influence of the predecessor and nitrogen fertilizer rate on energy efficiency and recyclable nitrogen fertilization and profitability of productivity.We share these data with the scientific community, as they are up-to-date and informative in both theoretical and practical aspects. The analyses are based on data from field experiments fertilizer derived after predecessor cereals – regular crop of sorghum, millet, maize and legumes after predecessor – separate sowing of chickpeas. Energy efficiency of nitrogen fertilization was calculated as the ratio between the energy supplied in the additional grain yield and energy input in the form of fertilizers. Refundable efficiency of nitrogen fertilization is the additional amount of nitrogen accumulated in the grain, with respect to the applied nitrogen fertilization. Economic profitability of production is evaluated by coefficient R = P/Ra (ratio of benefits/costs). The results show that energy efficiency and recyclable nitrogen fertilization are on average five times higher after cereal than after legumes predecessor, and decreased with increasing the fertilizer rate, the decrease was statistically significant only for the first item (exponent). Profitability ratio of production after the introduction of legumes predecessor in crop rotation increases by an average of 42% and retains maximum values of fertilization levels 0.06, 0.12 and 0.18 t/ha nitrogen. Profitability of wheat production using pre-legumes crop is not determined by the parameters nitrogen fertilizer rate and energy efficiency of nitrogen fertilization and refundable efficiency of nitrogen fertilization.

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Production potential of new triticale varieties grown in the region of Dobrudzha

Abstract. The production potential of the new triticale varieties Kolorit, Accord and Respect were investigated in a three-year field experiment (2009 – 2011) carried out in the trial field of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, General Toshevo (DAI). The experiment was designed by the split plot method in 4 replications, the size of the trial plot being 12 m2. The investigation involved four predecessors – oilseed rape, pea, sunflower and maize, and three fertilization norms according to the type of predecessor. The effect of some agronomy factors: the year conditions, the type of predecessor and the norm of fertilization, on the formation of yield, test weight, and 1000 grain weight of the new triticale varieties was analyzed. It was found that the year conditions and the level of mineral fertilization were the decisive factors for the formation of the yield of these varieties. Test weight was influenced to the highest degree by the year conditions and the genotype. The environment was determining for 1000 grain weight, while the genotype and the fertilization norm of mineral fertilization had similar effect. The new genotypes were responsive to fertilization, the tiered increase of the nitrogen fertilization norm leading to analogous higher productivity. During the years of investigation all three varieties gave high yields; varieties Accord and Respect had the highest test weight, and varieties Kolorit and Accord – the fullest grain with the largest size.

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Effect of fertilization and predecessor on chemical composition and energy value of wintering oats grain

A study has been conducted at the Experimental Station of Agriculture, Sredets to establish the effect of predecessor and mineral fertilization on chemical composition and energy value of wintering oats grain. The object of this study was wintering oat (Avena sativa L) variety Jubile cultivated after predecessors (A): stubble (A ), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers) -(A ) and rape (Brassica napus var. oleifera L) -(A ) and fertilization, kg/ha – (B): N P K -B ; 1 2 3 40 100 50 1 N P K -B ; N P K -B and B control N P K .The study covers chemical analysis of wintering oats grain made by Weende method. Calculations for the 80 100 50 2 120 100 50 3 0 – 0 100 50. nutritive value of feed grain based on data obtained from chemical analysis were made (for ruminants) expressed in gross energy (GE) – MJ/kg dry substance, metabolizable energy (ME) – MJ/kg dry substance, feed units for milk ( FUM, kg) and feed units for growth (FUG, kg) of dry substance – by using empirical equations. It was found that the predecessors stubble and rape increase the content of crude protein, crude fat and crude fibers in oats by 10.5 and 12.1%, 5.2 and 3.9%, 5.6 and 1.2%. The content of minerals and nitrogen-free extract (NFE ) was the highest after predecessor sorghum. Increasing the doses of nitrogen fertilizer led to increasing the content of crude protein and fibers in grains on average by 14.4% and decreases the content of crude fats, ash and NFE by 7.0%, 3.2% and 3.4%, respectively. The differences in chemical composition of oat grains did not have a significant impact on its energy value expressed by GE, ME,
(FUM) and (FUG).

Effect of fertilization and predecessor on chemical composition and energy value of wintering oats grain

M. Dimitrova – Doneva, R. Petkova