Estimation of the economic efficiency of Lacaune sheep farms, based on theoretical bio-economic models

S. Slavova*

Agricultural Institute, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 24 November 2020; accepted for publication 26 April 2021)

Abstract. The aim of the present study was to develop theoretical bio-economic models of Lacaune sheep farms and establish their economic efficiency. Based on three main criteria, 15 options were considered and analyzed. Data were processed using the program EWSH2 as a part of ECOWEIGHT Package for calculating economic weights in livestock. Revenues from sales, variable costs, gross margin and profitability before and after subsidies and per ewe were calculated. It was found that raising sheep of the high productive Lacaune breed could generate profit and provide profitability for the studied models of farms, regardless of the level of selection, type of production system, flock size and even the amount of subsidies. Nucleus farms reported the largest gross margin, followed by the basic and commercial farms. Profitability without subsidies showed the highest values for the nucleus flocks of 1000 ewes – 24.24% when adopting semi-intensive production system and 23.14% for the intensive one. With the addition of subsidies, nucleus and basic farms of 1000 ewes were considered the most profitable with 40% and 37.37%, as for both options the semi-intensive conditions were preferable. A tendency for the values of the studied indicators to grow with the increase in the number of ewes in the flocks was observed, as only for the variable costs it was reversed. Due to the lack of studies on economic efficiency of Lacaune sheep farms in Bulgaria, an additional detailed research, based on real data, is advisable to be conducted.


Economic values of productive and functional traits in sheep of Bulgarian dairy synthetic population

S. Slavova*, S. Laleva

Agricultural Institute, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 4 September 2020; accepted for publication 8 March 2021)

Abstract: The subject of the current research was to calculate profitability and economic values of production and functional traits in sheep of Bulgarian dairy synthetic population, reared at the Agricultural Institute – Stara Zagora. The study period was 7 years (2010-2016) and the average annual number of ewes in the flock was 188. The semi-intensive production system practised involved winter indoor lambing and summer grazing on pasture. Data were processed using the Program for calculating economic weights for sheep EWSH2. Profit and profitability in the flock had negative values – (-52.70 BGN) and -19.3%. Marginal economic values of the most important traits in dairy sheep – milk production and number of lambs born per ewe were estimated to 0.707 BGN per liter and 65.40 BGN per lamb, respectively. Litter size, milk yield, conception rate of ewes and ewe lambs and productive lifetime of ewes showed the highest economic importance. A very low economic weight was calculated for the wool production due to the market prices of wool. Conception rate of female animals and productive lifetime of ewes need to be more thoroughly investigated, as they are not currently an object of selection in dairy sheep breeding. Achieving competitive and economically sustainable productive systems in sheep farming is associated with a constant desire to increase the economic value of animals.

Stochastic production function and costs-returns analyses of apiarists in Adamawa State, Nigeria

M.M. Audu, M.R. Ja’afar-Furo*, B.H. Gabdo

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Adamawa State University, PMB 25, Mubi, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 23 September 2019; accepted for publication 14 February 2020)

Abstract. This study assessed apiculture enterprise to determine the output elasticity of production, returns to scale, technical efficiency and profitability in Adamawa State, Nigeria. A total of four agricultural zones out of six, and 108 apiarists were selected through purposive and simple random methods, respectively. Descriptive statistics, stochastic frontier production function and budgetary technique were used in the analyses of data. Findings revealed that all (100%) the respondents were males within the age range of 21-30 years (44.44%). The majority of apiarists (87.0%) were married with household size of 1-10 persons (77.78%) and 50.0% of them had secondary school education. A larger proportion (37.0%) had between 6 and 10 years of beekeeping experience with 41.67% earning monthly income of N11000 (USD30.8) – N20000 (USD56.0) from other sources. Further, the findings revealed that labor and number of hives had reassuring influence on the industry, while age, education and experience could be used to reduce inefficiency in the industry to improve efficiency status. The apiarists also had mean technical efficiency of 89.9%, while the inefficiency estimate was only 10.1%. In terms of profitability, beekeeping in the study area was found to have had a high gross margin of N16800.00 (USD47.0) and net farm income of N15225.97 (USD42.6) for every beehive in a cropping season. The major constraints to beekeeping reported in the area included beehive crops theft, high propensity of bees’ stings, inadequacy of finance, rampant bush burning and deforestation, among others. It was concluded that beekeeping in the study area was found to be profitable and technically efficient. Improving beekeeping business in the area, among other things, would require its modernization and involvement of female participants, provision of soft credit facilities and enactment of stringent forestry laws to check unwholesome forestry practices.

Analysis of cost and return in cowpea production: A case study Mubi south local government area of Adamawa State, Nigeria

T. Joshua, J. Zalkuwi, M.M. Audu

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Adamawa State University Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

(Manuscript received 27 September 2018; accepted for publication 10 April 2019)

Abstract. This study was designed to analyze the profitability of cowpea production in Mubi South Local Government Area of Adamawa state. The primary data were collected through the use of structured questionnaires. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used for the selection of a study area. Descriptive statistics and inferential techniques were used as analytical tools. The result shows that most of the cowpea producers (64%) were aged between 20-49 years with males dominating the business and the majority of the respondents (57%) were married. Household size was relatively large, 78% had some form of formal education and a greater proportion of the respondents (86%) did not belong to any farmer’s association. Most of the respondents (61%) are full-time farmers, while about 92 % of cowpea farmers had between 6 – >15 years of experience in cowpea production. Most of the farmers (78%) had one form of formal education. The computed gross margin and net farm income were N289128.2/ha (=816.5USD) and N286976.3/ha (=810.4USD), respectively, for cowpea production, which indicated that cowpea production was profitable in the area. It is recommended that, there is need for government support in terms of revitalization and priority finding extension delivery activities and agricultural development programs (ADP) in the study and area, access to subsidized farm input (such as pesticide, fertilizer and herbicide) and making credit facilities accessible and affordable to enable farmers boost their production.

Economic efficiency of fattening on different genotypes slow-growing and fast-growing broiler chickens

  1. Oblakova*, Y. Popova, P. Hristakieva, N. Mincheva, M. Lalev


Agricultural Institute, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 21 June 2017; accepted for publication 16 January 2018)


Abstract. In the present study six lines from the National Gene Pool (Bulgaria) were used, four of which – line NG (New Hampshire G), line E (Barred Plymouth Rock), line Ss (Sussex) and line F (NG x Red Rhode Island) as maternal forms in the crossing schedule and two sire lines, meat type – line L (White Plymouth Rock) and line M (Cornish), for production of slow-growing broilers. The effect of genotype on meat quality traits was studied with 5 groups of 150 unsexed day-old chicks from each genotype, and after the manifestation of sexual dimorphism – male and female chickens at 70 and 84 days of age. In valuation on revenues and costs of the fattening of the compared groups current prices at the time of the experiment were used. Cost of feed is determined according to the actual feed. In determining the economic efficiency of fattening, three variants of sales prices per kg of meat – 3.60 BGN/kg, 4.65 BGN/kg and 5.30 BGN/ kg have been analysed. The rate of profitability is a synthetic indicator for economic efficiency, calculated by the formula: NP = (Profitability / Production costs) * 100, %. Feed expenses for experimental group I were lowered by 22.8%, while in groups II, III, and IV- by 13.48%, 9.42% and 9.05%, respectively, compared to group V, which registered the highest consumption of feed in the amount of 5.52 BGN. The share of feed expenses in group I was 53.45% of total expenses, and in groups II, III, and IV group they were 59.88%, 56.30%, 57.50%, and 56.87%, respectively. The highest profits per the accepted sale prices were observed in group V- 10.71 BGN, 13.68 BGN and 15.52 BGN, respectively, followed by group IV with 8.56 BGN, 10.92 BGN, and 12.38 BGN, respectively.  At a level of sale prices of 3.60 BGN/kg a positive value of profitability was registered for the fattening of chickens from group V – 16.03%. In all other groups, the profitability norm was negative. At a level of sale prices of 4.65 BGN/kg, the highest profitability was observed in the chickens of group V – 48.21%, followed by group IV – 25.37%, while the lowest cost efficiency was in group III – 4.24%. In the variant with a sale price of 5.30 BGN/kg, the profitability norm was the highest in group V – 68.14%, followed by group IV – 42.13% and group II – 40.98%, while the lowest level was in group III – 18.21%.

Energy productivity, fertilization rate and profitability of wheat production after various predecessors II. Profitability of wheat production

Z. Uhr1*, Е. Vasileva2

1Institute of Plant Genetic Resources, 2 Druzhba, 4122 Sadovo, Bulgaria
2University of Agribusiness and Rural Development, 78 Dunav, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 27 July 2015; accepted for publication 13 October 2015)

Abstract. In the course of our study on the adaptation of modern genotypes common winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) to the requirements of sustainable agriculture data were received concerning the influence of the predecessor and nitrogen fertilizer rate on energy efficiency and recyclable nitrogen fertilization and profitability of productivity.We share these data with the scientific community, as they are up-to-date and informative in both theoretical and practical aspects. The analyses are based on data from field experiments fertilizer derived after predecessor cereals – regular crop of sorghum, millet, maize and legumes after predecessor – separate sowing of chickpeas. Energy efficiency of nitrogen fertilization was calculated as the ratio between the energy supplied in the additional grain yield and energy input in the form of fertilizers. Refundable efficiency of nitrogen fertilization is the additional amount of nitrogen accumulated in the grain, with respect to the applied nitrogen fertilization. Economic profitability of production is evaluated by coefficient R = P/Ra (ratio of benefits/costs). The results show that energy efficiency and recyclable nitrogen fertilization are on average five times higher after cereal than after legumes predecessor, and decreased with increasing the fertilizer rate, the decrease was statistically significant only for the first item (exponent). Profitability ratio of production after the introduction of legumes predecessor in crop rotation increases by an average of 42% and retains maximum values of fertilization levels 0.06, 0.12 and 0.18 t/ha nitrogen. Profitability of wheat production using pre-legumes crop is not determined by the parameters nitrogen fertilizer rate and energy efficiency of nitrogen fertilization and refundable efficiency of nitrogen fertilization.


Economic evaluation of winter wheat leaf fertilization

During the years 2006-2009 field experiment with winter wheat was held in the region of Stara Zagora. The object of study is the economic impact of leaf treatment with liquid fertilizer micro on productivity of winter wheat. Field experiment includes the following study options: control; fertilization with Wuxal Mikroplant; Wuxal Mikroplant and Kodiche applied in combination, Fertilider; Wuxal Copper. Foliar treatment with micro-fertilizer was made after booting, before inflorescence emergence, during intensive growth and development of plants, where the need for nutrients is the greatest. Economic analysis of the results show that the application of liquid fertilizers leads to low production cost. The cost of grain decreased to 40% of the control average for the period of study. It is therefore recommended for winter wheat, before inflorescence emergence to make leaf fertilization. Research shows that the introduction of microfertilizers 9 to 36 percent increase profitability compared to conventionally grown winter wheat.

Economic evaluation of winter wheat leaf fertilization

A. Stoyanova, I. Gospodinov, R. Petkova