Biotic stress factors in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes under various environmental conditions in Trakia Region

İ. Öztürk*

Trakia Agricultural Research Institute, Edirne, Turkey

(Manuscript received 20 December 2018; accepted for publication 16 April 2019)

Abstract. Barley is an important crop in Trakia region, Turkey and due to various environmental factors it can suffer some biotic stress and yield loss in the region. This research was carried out in two locations (Edirne and Tekirdağ) of Trakia region during 2013-2014 growing year. The experiment was set up with 25 advanced genotypes in completely randomized blocks with four replications at two locations. Grain yield, plant height, days to heading, leaf rust, net blotch, powdery mildew and relationship among these characters were investigated. According to the results, there was significant difference among genotypes for grain yield, biotic stress factors and other characters. The mean grain yield of the genotypes was 6866 kg ha-1. TEA1619-11 had the highest grain yield with 7667 kg ha-1. TEA2311-19 (7593 kg ha-1) and Harman (7593 kg ha-1) were the other highest yielding genotypes. Due to various environmental conditions, there was significant difference between locations. Mean yield in Edirne location was 7841 kg ha-1 and in Tekirdağ location it was 5891 kg ha-1. TEA1619-8 and TEA1619-9 sister lines had the shortest plant height and early genotypes had higher grain yield. Net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. teres) is the mainly prevalent disease in Trakya region. Leaf rust and powdery mildew had negative effect and decreased grain yield. TEA1619-12, TEA1619-17, TEA2311-19 and TEA1980-25 genotypes were resistant at both locations. TEA1980-25 was an outstanding line to net blotch, leaf rust and powdery mildew. It was determined that increase of net blotch had negative effect and decreased the grain yield in the genotypes.

Variation and stability of the advanced bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes under various environment conditions in Trakia region

İ. Öztürk1*, T. Kahraman1, R. Avcı1, A. Şen2, T.H. Kılıç1

1Trakia Agricultural Research Institute, Edirne, Turkey
2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, İstanbul University, İstanbul, Turkey

(Manuscript received 10 October 2018; accepted for publication 24 January 2019)

Abstract. Various environmental conditions can cause some biotic and abiotic stress factors and reduce yield and quality of wheat. This research was carried out to determine the effect of the environmental conditions on yield, some agronomic, and leaf rust disease of the bread wheat genotypes in four different locations in Trakia region, Turkey. The experiment was established with 25 genotypes in randomised complete block design (RCBD) with 4 replications in 2008-2009 cycles. Grain yield, days to heading and maturity, plant height, lodging resistance, leaf rust and relationship among characters were investigated. The temperature and rainfall were scored at GS24-33, GS34-43, GS45-75 and GS77-89 growth stages and compared with the investigated traits. According to the results, significant differences among locations and some investigated parameters were found based on rainfall and temperature with yield and other investigated traits. The mean yield of the genotypes was 5851 kg ha-1, and CMSW97WM518S-12 had the highest yield with 6601 kg ha-1. Tekirdağ was the highest yielding location with 7022 kg ha-1, followed by Edirne (5808 kg ha-1) and Kırklareli (5754 kg ha-1). Due to various environment conditions infection of the leaf rust varied and there were differences among locations. Cultivar Aldane and three lines were resistant to leaf rust. Positive relation between yield with plant height and lodging resistance was found and this means that genotypes which have tall plant had higher yield potential. Rainfall at GS24-33 (r= 0.855) and GS34-43 (r= 0.911*) had a significant and positive effect on grain yield. Increase of temperature during the shooting, heading and grain filling period decreased grain yield, so negative association between grain yield and temperature at GS34-43 (r= -0.761), GS45-75 (r= -0.635) and GS77-89 (r= -0.815) was found. The overall evaluation suggested that increase of temperature from shooting up to grain filling decreased the grain yield duration of the maturating stage. Rainfall during the vegetative growth phase increased grain yield and biomass of plant of genotypes.

Variability and grain yield potential of maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes under irrigated condition in central Sudan

M.B. Alhussein1, S.H. Suliman2, A.A. Mohammed3

 

1Maize research program, Agricultural Research Corporation, Wad Medani, Sudan

2Crop sciences section, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Gezira, Wad Medani, Sudan

3Maize research program, Agricultural Research Corporation, Wad Medani, Sudan

 

DOI: 10.15547/ast.2018.03.038

(Manuscript received 25 May 2018; accepted for publication 27 August 2018)

 

Abstract. These experiments were conducted in two different sites to study the genetic variability and the mean performance of the elite different origin maize genotypes under irrigated condition in central region of Sudan during rainy season of 2015. The experiments were arranged in randomized complete block design with three replicates, the data were collected on days to 50% tasseling and silking, plant and ear height, ear length and diameter and grain yield. The analysis of variance for each site and cross sites showed a significant variability among tested genotypes for grain yield, days to 50% tasseling and silking, plant and ear height, ear length and diameter. Also significant differences were observed for genotypes, site and a cross site for most of the studied traits such as for grain yield, days to 50% tasseling and silking, plant and ear height, ear length and diameter. The combined results for genotypic coefficients of variability and broad sense heritability estimates grain yield, ear length and ear diameter varied significantly among the tested genotypes.

Productivity and adaptability of new genotypes field pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivated under environmental condition of Southern Romania

R. Sturzu*, A. M. Ene, Cr. Melucă, J. M. Cojocaru

Agricultural Research and Development Station Teleorman, Drăgănești Vlașca, 147135 Teleorman, Romania (Manuscript received 11 October 2016; accepted for publication 19 January 2017)

Abstract. The purpose of the paper was to identify new peas genotypes, created in Agricultural Research and Development Station, Teleorman, South Romania, with improved productivity and adaptability to the environmental conditions of that region. The study was carried out with 25 field pea varieties for a period of three years (2013-2015). The experiment was conducted in randomized complete blocks design in three replications. The results of variance analysis showed that there was significant difference among pea genotypes by grain yield. The average yield over three years showed that lines M 1357, M 1410, M 1418 and M 720 achieved higher yield levels compared with the control genotype Vedea and with the average yield of all tested genotypes. Yields stability was estimated by coefficient of variability. Correlation analysis showed that the strongest relations there are between productivity elements: number of pods and seeds per plant (r = 0.905), number of pods and seeds weight per plant (r = 0.655), number of seeds per plant and seeds weight (r = 0.815), plant height and first pod insertion height (r = 0.921). There are significant negative correlations between 1000 seeds weight and number of grains per plant (r = – 0.229), number of pods per plant and 1000 seeds weight (r = -0.346), the first pod insertion height and number of pods per plant (r = -0.530), and the number of grains per plant (r = -0.412). The results obtained in this study suggest that, the new field pea genotypes are suitable for spreading and cultivating in Southern Romania.

Production properties of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) cultivated in Strumica region, Republic of Macedonia

P. Vuckov*, M. Ilievski, D. Spasova, L. Mihajlov, N. Markova-Ruzdić

Department for Crop Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University Goce Delchev, 2400 Stip, Republic of Macedonia (Manuscript received 30 May 2016; accepted for publication 16 September 2016)

Abstract. The purpose of this research was to determine the production properties of 5 flax genotypes cultivated in agro-ecological conditions in the Strumica region, Republic of Macedonia.The research was conducted in a period of two years (2014 and 2015), on the research fields in Strumica at Uni Service – Agro, Faculty of Agriculture, University Goce Delchev, Stip.The research was conducted on 5 genotypes of flax, 4 of which are domestic intermediate genotypes (transitive) flax (Velusina, Duferin, Belan, Belinka) and one French introduced fiber flax variety (Viking). The experiment consisted of five variants in three iterations, divided by the method of random block system for each genotype.The number of fruit per plant in both years of testing is statistically different among different genotypes. In the first year of the examination (2014), the largest number of fruit per plant had genotype Velusina (156) and the lowest (70.3) genotype Belan. In the second year of the examination (2015), the largest number of fruit per plant had the genotype Velusina (102.3) and the lowest (54.7), genotype Belinka.There is no statistically significant difference in number of seeds in the fruit among the tested genotypes. In the first year of the examination (2014), the largest number of seeds in fruit had genotype Velusina (4.63) and the lowest (2.26) – genotype Viking. In the second year of the examination (2015), the largest number of seeds in fruit had genotype Belan (9.96) and the lowest (7.06) – genotype Duferin. In the first year of the examination (2014), the largest number of seed yield per plant in kg/ha had the genotype Viking (500 kg/ha) and the lowest – genotype Belinka (210 kg/ha). In the second year of the examination (2015), the largest number of seed yield per plant in kg/ha had genotype Velusina (1100 kg/ha) and the lowest – genotype Belinka (780 kg/ha). In both years of research (2014 and 2015) there were statistically significant differences on the level of probability of 0.05 and 0.01 among the examined genotypes. Based on the survey results the most promising genotypes in terms of stability, yielding and quality are proposed to producers and industry, both at home and abroad.