Achievements and problems in the weed control in grain maize (Zea mays L.)

  1. G. Delchev, M. Georgiev

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of agriculture, 6000 Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 28 November 2016; accepted for publication 5 February 2018)

Abstract. Chemical control has emerged as the most efficient method of weed control. Herbicides combinations and tank mixtures of herbicides with adjuvants, fertilizers, growth regulators, fungicides, insecticides, are more effective than when they are applied alone in maize crops. Their combined use often leads to high synergistic effect on yield. There are maize hybrids resistant to imidazolinone for Clearfield technology, but they have not yet been introduced in Bulgaria. Data regarding herbicide for chemical control of perennial graminaceous weeds in maize crops are quite scarce even worldwide. The problem is the persistence of some herbicides used in the predecessors on succeeding crops, which is directly related to the weather conditions during their degradation. Most of the information in maize relates to conventional technology for weed control. There is not information about the new Duo system technology in grain maize and the hybrids used are resistant to cycloxydim. A serious problem is also the volunteers of the Clearfield and Express sun sunflower. They have resistance to herbicides different from that of conventional sunflower hybrids. There is no information yet in scientific literature about control of these volunteers.

Achievements and problems in the weed control in grain sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor Moench.)

Gr. Delchev*, M. Georgiev

1Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria (Manuscript received 28 November 2016; accepted for publication 21 March 2017)

Abstract. Chemical control has emerged as the most efficient method of weed control. Herbicides combinations and tank mixtures of herbicides with adjuvants, fertilizers, growth regulators, fungicides, insecticides are more effective than when applied alone on sorghum crops. Their combined use often leads to high synergistic effect on yield. The use of herbicide antidotes for the treatment of seeds in sorghum is a safe way to overcome its high sensitivity to many herbicides. Data regarding herbicide for chemical control of annual graminaceous weeds in sorghum crops are quite scarce even worldwide. Problem is the persistence of some herbicides used in the predecessors on succeeding crops, which is directly related to the weather conditions during their degradation. Most of the information on sorghum relates to the conventional technology for weed control. There is no information about the new Concep technology in grain sorghum. A serious problem is also the volunteers of the Clearfield and Express sun sunflower. They have resistance to herbicides different from that of conventional sunflower hybrids. There is no information yet in scientific literature on control of these volunteers.

Characterization of a new winter malting barley cultivar Ahil

B. Dyulgerova*, Dr. Vulchev, T. Popova

Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 7 February 2017; accepted for publication 30 May 2017)

Abstract. Ahil is a new winter malting barley cultivar developed by the method of experimental mutagenesis at the Institute of Agriculture, Karnobat, Bulgaria. Biological and agronomic characteristics of the cultivar were also investigated for several years and at the Executive Agency of Varietal Testing, Field Inspection and Seed Control trails in the period 2012 – 2013. Averaged for 6 locations in Bulgaria grain yield of the new cultivar was significantly higher than the yield of standard cultivars with about 5%. At the Institute of Agriculture grain yield was 17% higher than the average standard for the period of 5 years. The cultivar has high winter hardness, lodging resistance, resistance to powdery mildew and medium resistance to brown rust. Ahil has good malting quality.

Quality of grain and flour of foreign bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) under the conditions of south Dobrudzha region

P. Chamurliyski1*, N. Tsenov2, I. Stoeva3, S. Doneva3, E. Penchev3

1Department of Crop Science and Plant Protection, College Dobrich, Konstantin Preslavski University of Shumen, 9300 Dobrich, Bulgaria 2Agronom I Holding, 9300 Dobrich, Bulgaria
3Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, 9521 General Toshevo, Bulgaria

(Manuscript received 23 March 2016; accepted for publication 28 September 2016)

Abstract. One of the main directions of the breeding programs in common winter wheat, besides increasing productivity, is developing of cultivars with excellent baking properties. An important prerequisite for this is the involvement of new gene plasma of variable origin, which is adequate to the growing conditions and the desired breeding direction. The aim of investigation is study of some main properties related to the grain quality and the baking properties of bread wheat accessions of foreign origin under the conditions of the South Dobrudzha region. Twenty-five foreign bread wheat cultivars of various origins were investigated for a three year period. Cultivars Aglika, Enola, Pryaspa and Yantur were used as standards. Some indices related to the quality of grain and flour were analyzed at the Bread Making Laboratory of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute (DAI). The expression of the following parameters was followed: test weigh, % of protein, sedimentation, wet gluten yield, softening degree, pharinographic value, bread volume, and the quality index (QI) was calculated. The cultivars, which demonstrated high grain quality, were the Romanian Faur, Moldovan Dobropolka, American Wahoo and the Ukrainian Zmina. Averaged for the three years, highest variation was found for the index pharinographic value. On the whole, the materials with origin from Romania, Ukraine and USA were characterized with high values of the quality indices. Cultivars Faur and Zmina can be successfully included in the breeding program of DAI for development of strong wheat varieties.

Achievements and problems in the weed control in common wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) and durum wheat (Triticum Durum Desf.)

G. Delchev*, M. Georgiev

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

Abstract. Herbicides combinations and tank mixtures of herbicides with adjuvants, fertilizers, growth regulators, fungicides, insecticides, are more effective than when applied alone on wheat crops. Their combined use often leads to high synergistic effect on yield. Many authors present data from which it is clear that durum wheat differs from common wheat in their reaction to some herbicides, herbicide combinations and herbicide tank mixtures. A serious problem in wheat is Bromus arvensis L. due to their resistance to most antigramineous herbicides. In recent years effective herbicides to fight against them have emerged, but their number is still too limited. A problem is the persistence of some herbicides used in the predecessors on succeeding crops, which is directly related to the weather conditions during their degradation. Contrary opinions are published on some issues due primarily to the different conditions under which the experiments were conducted and the biological characteristics of the tested cultivars. Most of the information on these subjects refers mainly to common wheat and only a limited amount of it is for durum wheat. A serious problem is also the volunteers of Clearfield canola (Brassica napus L.), Clearfield and Express sun sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). They have resistance to herbicides different from that of conventional canola and sunflower hybrids. A problem is also volunteers of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and milk thistle (Silybum marianum Gaertn.). There is yet no information in the scientific literature as to control of these volunteers.

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Correlation between qualitative-technological traits and grain yield in two-row barley varieties

N. Markova Ruzdik1*, D.Valcheva2, D.Vulchev2, Lj. Mihajlov1, I. Karov1, V. Ilieva1

1Faculty of Agriculture, “Goce Delchev” University, 2000 Shtip, Republic of Macedonia 2Institute of Agriculture, 8400 Karnobat, Bulgaria

Abstract. The aim of this paper was to determine the correlation between qualitative-technological traits and grain yield, as well as, the variability of these properties in two-row barley varieties. The experiment was conducted during the period of 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 on the research fields of the Faculty of Agriculture, in two different locations in the Republic of Macedonia, Ovche Pole and Strumica. The total numbers of 21 genotypes were used as research material, of which 5 were Macedonian, 2 were Croatian, 2 were Serbian and 12 genotypes originate from Bulgaria. The following qualitative-technological traits were analyzed: protein content, uniformity of I class grains, weight of 1 000 grains, hectoliter mass, water sensitivity and soaking degree. In both experimental years, the average values for grain yield for tested genotypes in Strumica location were higher, compared with genotypes examined in Ovche Pole location. In both locations significant and positive correlation was established between the grain yield and weight of 1 000 grains. Using the principle component analysis, it was determined that as far as qualitative traits and grain yield were concerned, two main components with cumulative percent of variation of 69.63% were identified for genotypes analyzed in Ovche Pole. Also for tested genotypes grown in Strumica were obtained two main components with cumulative percent of variation of 59.75%. The most suitable for growing in Ovche Pole location were the genotypes: Perun, Lardeya, Asparuh, Sajra and Odisej and for Strumica location genotypes: Hit, Line 1, Lardeya, Kuber, Sajra and Devinija.

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Study of opportunities for effective use of varieties from Ukraine for creating early winter wheat lines II. Grain quality

N. Tsenov, D. Atanasova, I. Stoeva, E. Tsenova

Abstract. State and Aims: In the wheat breeding of Bulgaria foreign varieties or samples with excellent grain quality are used as parents. The most important indices of the quality of promising breeding lines obtained with participation of pattern from Ukraine are analyzed. The aim is to explore the real possibilities for compromise combining high yield and early date of heading of Bulgarian with the grain quality of Ukrainian forms.

Methods In the course of two consecutive years 64 genotypes of which 50 lines from 5 hybrid combinations of two biotypes, with 10 parental and several standard varieties for correct comparison were investigated. A total of nine traits of quality by which a comparison between the value of the lines, the parental varieties, standards and several varieties obtained also with the participation of varieties from Ukraine are analyzed. Combining Ability of parents for grain quality, with special emphasis on the combination of precocity is discussed.

Key results: In order to enhance the quality of cereals in combination with precocity the varieties most appropriate to combine are Albatros odesskiy and Obrii. The latter can be used to increase grain productivity as well. Developing lines with earlier date of ear emergence and higher productivity of the early Mironovskaya 29, Galatea and Enola is unlikely. By using specific varieties it is possible to combine quality levels of grain with precocity, but within the boundaries of the particular indices of the parental varieties.

Conclusions: When combining different in date of ear heading samples and then selecting earlier plants in hybrid populations it is possible to obtain favourable combinations of yield and grain quality. The genetic level of quality of such lines is related to the date of ear emergence, so that the quality is high, as is the later date of ear emergence. The higher the quality of the parents by this approach, the greater the probability to obtain more qualitative lines in the progenies. The date of ear heading in creating high quality lines is similar to that of the corresponding quality parent. Therefore, to obtain the desired early genotypes high quality donors such as Obrii and Iveta var. and new sources such as Demetra, Goritsa and others should be selected.

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Investigation on the possibility to efficiently use Ukrainian cultivars for developing of early winter wheat lines

I. Grain productivity
N. Tsenov, T. Petrova, E. Tsenova
Abstract. Situation and aims. This investigation was carried out with the aim to determine the suitability of some Ukrainian wheat cultivars for improvement of the productivity of the Bulgarian ecotype of winter wheat. The economic traits and properties of promising breeding lines from crosses between them were studied. The focus was on the breeding possibilities of compromise combining early maturation with grain yield.
Methods. A total of 50 genotypes were investigated: 40 of them were lines (from 4 hybrid combinations), 8 parental lines and several standard cultivars for comparison. Data were obtained from competitive varietal trials after growing for several successive years. The main traits directly or indirectly related to productivity were analyzed. The combination of earliness with the other economic traits and indices is discussed from the point of view of the combining ability of the early parents involved in the combinations.
Key results. Although each studied combination involved an early parent, it was found that early forms were obtained with the participation of cultivars Obriy and Mironovskaya 29. The percent of early lines was highest in the combinations with their participation. In the crosses involving Albatros odeskiy and Mironovskaya 27, the productivity of the early lines was lower than the productivity of the parental lines. Cultivar Obriy was most promising for breeding work, especially for combining early heading with higher grain yield through high values of number of productive ears and grain size.
Conclusions. Cultivars Albatros odeskiy and Obriy were most suitable for obtaining higher productivity in combination with earliness. The deriving of lines with earlier date to heading and higher productivity from the early cultivars Mironovskaya 29, Galateya and Enola was completely successful. By using specific cultivars, there is the possibility to combine high yield with earliness but within the limits of the specific parental cultivars for each individual combination.

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Influence of some stimulators on the grain economic and sowing-seeds properties of two durum wheat cultivars

A two-factor experiment was carried out on pellic vertisol soil type in 2007-2009 on the experimental field of the Cotton and Durum Wheat Research Institute, Chirpan, Bulgaria. Factor A included 2 Bulgarian durum wheat cultivars – Vuzhod and Saturn, which belong to var. valenciae. Factor B included 6 rates – non-treated control and 3 stimulators: Tritimil – 300 ml/ha, Napsil – 300 and 500 ml/ha, Cemofol – 500 and 700 ml/ha. All stimulators were treated in the tillering stage of the durum wheat. Stimulators Tritimil, Napsil and Cemofol decreased less the 1-st and 2-nd overgrown internode length of cultivar Saturn compared with cultivar Vuzhod. Napsil and Cemofol increased grain yield by 9.0 % and 10.9 % in cultivar Vuzhod and by 10.3 % in cultivar Saturn. Both stimulators have equal or increased effectiveness compared with the standard Tritimil. The studied stimulators increased the vitreousness, protein content, wet and dry gluten contents. Stimulators Tritimil, Napsil and Cemofol increased germination energy and seed germination and decreased the waste grain quantity.

Influence of some stimulators on the grain economic and sowing-seeds properties of two durum wheat cultivars

G. Delchev, D. Nenkova, D. Stoychev